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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM TO

Commission File Number: 001-39445

MSP Recovery, Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

Delaware

84-4117825

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

2710 Le Jeune Road Floor 10

Coral Gables, Florida

33134

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (305) 614-2222

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value per share

 

LIFW

 

The Nasdaq Global Market

Redeemable warrants, each whole warrant exercisable for one share of Class A common stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share

 

LIFWW

 

The Nasdaq Global Market

Redeemable warrants, each whole warrant exercisable for one share of Class A common stock at an exercise price of $0.0001 per share

 

LIFWZ

 

The Nasdaq Global Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☒

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant based on the closing price of $0.328 for the shares of common stock on the Nasdaq Stock Market on June 30, 2023, was $43,005,879.

The number of shares of Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of July 19, 2023 was 331,235,848 shares of Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 3,106,616,119 shares of Class V common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

None.

 

 


 

Explanatory Note

 

As described in our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on April 14, 2023, we identified errors in the accounting for the indemnification asset, various intangible assets and rights to cash flows, and consolidation of an entity in connection with our business combination. As a result of these errors, management and the audit committee of our board of directors concluded that our previously issued unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for the periods ended June 30, 2022 and September 30, 2022 were materially misstated. Accordingly, our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for the foregoing periods require restatement and should no longer be relied upon. The financial information that was previously filed or otherwise reported as of and for the periods ended June 30, 2022 and September 30, 2022 is superseded by the information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. See Note 18 to our consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information on the restatement and the related financial information impacts.

In addition, on April 16, 2023, the board of directors of the Company established a special committee to review matters related to the preparation and filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and to address any related issues. At that time, it was decided to postpone the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K pending the special committee’s review. On June 13, 2023, the special committee finalized its review. The findings and recommendations of the special committee are set forth in "Part II, Item 9A Controls and Procedures" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Table of Contents

 

Page

PART I

Item 1.

Business

4

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

15

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

49

Item 2.

Properties

49

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

49

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

49

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

50

Item 6.

[Reserved]

50

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

51

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

64

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

64

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

97

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

97

Item 9B.

Other Information

100

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

100

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

101

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

105

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

107

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

110

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

111

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

112

Item 16

Form 10-K Summary

114

 

i


 

DEFINITIONS

Unless otherwise stated or unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company,” and “LifeWallet” refer to MSP Recovery, Inc. d/b/a LifeWallet. As used in this annual report on Form 10-K, unless otherwise noted or the context otherwise requires, the terms below are defined as follows:

“Algorithm” The term algorithm generally refers to a set of instructions that perform a particular action. Our team of data scientists and medical professionals create proprietary instruction sets, or “Algorithms,” to identify recovery opportunities within our Assignors’ Claims data sets. The Algorithms incorporate various data points within our Assignors’ data, which may include, but are not limited to, medical coding classification systems such as diagnosis codes (e.g., ICD-8/ICD-9/ICD-10 codes), procedure codes (e.g., CPT codes), and drug codes (e.g., NDC codes); non-medical data such as demographics and date ranges; and data from public sources such as crash reports, offense incident reports, and other reports that provide details as to an occurrence. These Algorithms are then applied to our Assignors’ aggregated Claims data, filtering through the billions of lines of data from our Assignors to identify recoverable opportunities consistent with a given Algorithm’s criteria. Identified potential recoveries are then further quality reviewed by our medical team.

“Amended and Restated Bylaws” means the proposed Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company;

“Billed Amount” (a/k/a the charged amount or retail price) is the full commercial value of services billed by the provider, or the full charge that the provider would ordinarily bill for the service provided. The Billed Amount for a specific procedure code is based on the provider and varies from location to location. The Company uses historical data from claims submitted by providers to determine the Billed Amount when a Billed Amount is not provided in the data received from the Assignor.

“Board of Directors” or “Board” means the board of directors of the Company;

“Business Combination” means the business combination pursuant to that certain Membership Interest Purchase Agreement, dated as of July 11, 2021, as described in more detail in Note 1 of this Form 10-K;

“Claim” means the right, title to, and/or interest in, any and all claims or potential claims, including all related reimbursement and recovery rights, which the Company has, may have had, or may have in the future assigned to it (whether or not asserted), including all rights to causes of action and remedies against any third-party, whether a primary payer or responsible party, at law or in equity. The term “Claim” includes but is not limited to: (i) claims arising under consumer protection statutes and laws; (ii) claims arising under the Medicare and Medicare Advantage secondary payer statutes, whether based in contract, tort, statutory right, or otherwise, in connection with the payment to provide healthcare services or supplies; (iii) claims arising under any state statutes and common laws irrespective of the rights that are conferred to MSP through assignment or otherwise; and (iv) all right, title, and interest to any recovery rights that may exist for any potential cause of action where a responsible party or primary payer is liable, even where it has not been established because liability is not yet proven as of the date that the Claim is identified or discovered, together with all receivables, general intangibles, payment intangibles, and other rights to payment now existing or hereafter arising and all products and proceeds of the foregoing;

“Class A Common Stock” means the shares of the Company’s Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, as described in more detail in Note 3 of this Form 10-K;

“Class B Common Stock” means the shares of the Company’s Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, as described in more detail in Note 1 of this Form 10-K;

“Class V Common Stock” means the shares of the Company’s Class V common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, as described in more detail in Note 1 of this Form 10-K;

“Class B Unit” means the non-voting economic Class B Units of the Company, as described in more detail in Note 1 of this Form 10-K;

“Closing” means the closing of the Business Combination, as described in more detail in Note 3 of this Form 10-K;

“DGCL” means the Delaware General Corporation Law, as may be amended from time to time;

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended;

“Existing Warrant Agreement” means the Warrant Agreement dated as of August 13, 2020, by and between the Company and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company;

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“Founder Shares” means the shares of the Class B Common Stock and the shares of Class A Common Stock issued upon the automatic conversion of the Class B Common Stock at the time of the Business Combination as provided in the Existing Charter;

“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, as applied on a consistent basis;

“IPO” means the initial public offering by the Company;

“Incentive Plan” means the MSP Recovery Omnibus Incentive Plan effective May 18, 2022, a copy of which is filed as an Exhibit 10.16 to our Form S-1 Registration Statement filed on November 30, 2022;

“LCAP Board” means the board of directors of the Company prior to the Closing;

“LLC Agreement” means the first amended and restated limited liability company agreement of Opco;

“Members’ Representative” means John H. Ruiz, solely in his capacity as the representative of the Members;

“MIPA” means the Membership Interest Purchase Agreement, dated as of July 11, 2021, as described in more detail in Note 1 of this Form 10-K;

“MSP Recovery” means MSP Recovery, LLC;

“New Warrants” means 1,029,000,000 warrants, each to purchase one share of Class A Common Stock issued as a dividend to the holders of record of Class A Common Stock as of the close of business on the date of Closing;

“Nomura” means Nomura Securities International, Inc.;

“Opco” means Lionheart II Holdings, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company;

“Paid Amount,” (a/k/a Medicare Paid Rate or wholesale price) means the amount paid to the provider from the health plan or insurer. This amount varies based on the party making payment. For example, Medicare typically pays a lower fee for service rate than commercial insurers. The Paid Amount is derived from the Claims data we receive from our Assignors. In the limited instances where the data received lacks a paid value, our team calculates the Paid Amount with a formula. The formula used provides rates for outpatient services and is derived from the customary rate at the 95th percentile as it appears from standard industry commercial rates or, where that data is unavailable, the billed amount if present in the data. These amounts are then adjusted to account for the customary Medicare adjustment to arrive at the calculated Paid Amount. Management believes that this formula provides a conservative estimate for the Medicare paid amount rate, based on industry studies which show the range of differences between private insurers and Medicare rates for outpatient services.

 

We periodically update this formula to enhance the calculated paid amount where that information is not provided in the Assignor data. Management believes this measure provides a useful baseline for potential recoveries, but it is not a measure of the total amount that may be recovered in respect of potentially recoverable Claims, which in turn may be influenced by any applicable potential statutory recoveries such as double damages or fines, as described below. This calculation accounts for an approximate 7% increase in the total Paid Amount. Where we have to extrapolate a Paid Amount to establish damages, the calculated amount may be contested by opposing parties.

“Private Warrants” means warrants which is exercisable for one share of Class A Common Stock, in accordance with its terms;

“Public Units” means units comprised of one share of Class A Common Stock and one-half of one Public Warrant issued in the IPO;

“Public Warrants” means warrants included in the Public Units issued in the IPO, each of which is exercisable for one share of Class A Common Stock, in accordance with its terms, as described in more detail in Note 3;

“PVPRC” means the cumulative Paid Amount value of potentially recoverable Claims. We analyze our Claims portfolio and identify potentially recoverable Claims using Algorithms that comb through historical paid Claims data and search for potential recoveries. The PVPRC is a measure of the Paid Amount in respect of those potentially recoverable Claims. In the limited instances where the data received from our Assignors lacks a paid value, the adjustment formula described in the definition of Paid Amount is applied and increases PVPRC by approximately 6.5%.

 

“SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission;

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“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended;

“Series MRCS” means Series MRCS, a series of MDA, Series LLC, a Delaware series limited liability company;

“Sponsor” means Lionheart Equities, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company;

“Trust Account” means the trust account established by the Company for the benefit of its stockholders with Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company;

“Up-C Unit” means each pair consisting of one share of Class V Common Stock and one Class B Unit, as described in more detail in Note 1 of this Form 10-K.

“Virage” means Virage Capital Management LP, a Delaware limited partnership;

“Voting Rights Threshold Date” means the date on which the voting power of John H. Ruiz and his affiliates represent less than fifty percent (50%) of the voting power of all of the then outstanding shares of the Company generally entitled to vote;

“VRM” means Virage Recovery Master LP, a Delaware limited partnership and affiliate of Virage; and

“VRM MSP” means VRM MSP Recovery Partners LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and joint investment vehicle of VRM and Series MRCS.

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PART I

Item 1. Business.

Industry Overview

The market for healthcare data solutions and healthcare Claims recovery solutions is large and growing. In 2020, the U.S. national health care expenditure was an estimated $4.1 trillion and accounted for 19.7% of the U.S. gross domestic product (“GDP”). The Office of the Actuary of the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”) estimates that the U.S. national health care expenditure will amount to $6.2 trillion, accounting for 19.7% of the GDP in 2028. National health care expenditures are projected to grow 1.1% faster than the GDP between 2019 and 2028.

CMS estimated that $1.6 trillion would be spent on Medicare and Medicaid in 2021. This $1.6 trillion includes $684 billion on Medicaid expenditures and $923 billion on Medicare expenditures. We estimate the serviceable addressable market for Medicare was $102 billion and $75 billion for Medicaid for 2021.

Further, CMS estimates that they review less than 0.2% of the over one billion Claims that Medicare processes every year, which leads to a potentially high frequency or number of improper payments of Claims submitted.

The Company’s Business Overview

We are a leading data analytics company specializing in healthcare Claims recovery. Our Assignors are healthcare providers and payers (the “Assignors”) that have irrevocably assigned to us their recovery rights associated with certain healthcare Claims. We obtain Claims data from the Assignors and leverage our data analytics capabilities using our Claims recovery platform to identify payments that were improperly paid by our Assignors. We then seek the full recoverable amount from those parties who, under applicable law or contract, were responsible for payment (or reimbursement). Our Assignors fall into three general categories:

o
Medicare Advantage. Medicare Advantage organizations (“MAOs”) contract with CMS to administer Medicare benefits to Medicare beneficiaries pursuant to Medicare Advantage plans; and MAOs, in turn, contract with Medicare first-tier, downstream, and related entities to assist the MAOs in administering those Medicare benefits.
o
Medicaid. Health coverage provided to eligible low-income adults, children, pregnant women, elderly adults, and people with disabilities.
o
Commercial Insurance. Employer-sponsored or individual purchased health insurance coverage.

In January 2022, the Company announced the launch of LifeWallet. LifeWallet is a data ecosystem that is in continuous development to provide innovative data solutions for a variety of industries, including, but not limited to, sports, education, legal, and healthcare. LifeWallet is being developed to employ sophisticated data analytics to enable informed decision-making and improved patient outcomes.

Our assets are generally comprised of recovery rights assigned by our Assignors relating to the improper payment of medical expenses. As opposed to service-based contracts, the entirety of these recovery rights have been irrevocably assigned to us, and because we own these rights, our recovery rights for Claims being pursued cannot be revoked.

Although our Assignors are primarily MAOs, Management Services Organizations (“MSO”) and Independent Practitioner Associations (“IPA”), we also can (and in certain cases do) provide our Claims recovery services to other entities such as:

Health Maintenance Organizations (“HMOs”)
Accountable Care Organization (“ACOs”)
Physicians
Home Healthcare Facilities
Self-Funded Plans
States and Municipalities
Skilled Nursing Facilities
Hospitals/Health Systems

 

Our data recovery system operates across a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) compliant IT platform incorporating the latest in business intelligence and data technology. Due to the sensitive nature of the data we receive from our Assignors, we ensure that our data systems comply with the security and privacy mandates by federal law. In April 2022, Marcum LLP (“Marcum”), a HITRUST authorized External Assessor Organization, completed an independent assessment of MSP

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Recovery’s system and service commitments, concluding that our system met the requirements to satisfy the applicable trust services criteria and HITRUST CSF criteria. This independent assessment verifies that we met the healthcare industry’s highest standards in protecting healthcare information and mitigating this risk, including compliance with HIPAA rules and regulations. On March 2, 2023, Marcum provided MSP Recovery a report demonstrating that our data recovery system’s commitments and system requirements meet or exceed the stringent SOC 2 Type II applicable trust services criteria. For our cloud computing services, we currently use the HITRUST certified Amazon Web Services (“AWS”).

 

The Company’s History

In April 2014, MSP Recovery’s predecessor, La Ley Recovery Systems, entered into its first assignment agreement. Later that year, MSP Recovery, LLC was founded to provide data driven solutions, and La Ley Recovery Systems filed its first lawsuit against a primary payer—Allstate Insurance Company. In late 2014, we entered into assignment agreements with our second and third Assignors. To date, we have over 160 Assignors.

Since 2014, we have had significant legal victories, including several significant federal appellate court wins. In these opinions, the courts agreed with us on a variety of key issues, holding that:

downstream entities, such as MSOs and IPAs have standing to sue primary plans under the Medicare Secondary Payer Act (“MSP Act”) and associated federal regulations (collectively, the “MSP Laws”); and
a settlement agreement with a Medicare beneficiary is evidence of constructive knowledge that the primary payer had reimbursement obligations.

Claims Recovery Model

Identifying Opportunity. Our primary focus is on the Medicare and Medicaid markets. Medicare is the second largest government program, with approximately 65 million enrollees and estimated annual expenditures of approximately $930 billion during 2022. Medicaid is a state-based program with approximately 85 million enrollees and estimated annual expenditures of approximately $864 billion during 2022. Under the MSP Laws, Medicare is the secondary payer in those instances where a primary payer is obligated to provide coverage to an insured. When Medicare (or an MAO) makes a payment for medical services that are the responsibility of a primary payer under the MSP Act, those payments are subject to recovery where, and to the extent that, one of the statutorily enumerated sources of primary coverage was contractually obligated to pay. Subsequent MSP Act legislation authorizes private parties to recover unreimbursed payments in cases where a primary plan fails to provide payment (or appropriate reimbursement) in accordance with MSP Laws.

We believe our access to large volumes of data, sophisticated data analytics, and a leading technology platform provide a unique ability to discover and recover Claims. Using Algorithms, we identify fraud, waste, and abuse in the Medicare, Medicaid, and commercial insurance segments. Our Algorithms have identified what we estimate to be significant value in potentially recoverable Claims. Of the amount spent yearly by Medicare on medical expenses for its beneficiaries, we estimate that at least 10% are improper payments by private Medicare Advantage plans where a primary payer was responsible to make the payment. We seek recoveries of the Billed Amount from responsible primary payers, and in some instances, double damages and statutory interest pursuant to the MSP Laws.

Pursuit of Recoveries. After potentially recoverable Claims are identified using our Algorithms, and vetted by our team of professionals, we formally retain counsel, including La Ley con John H. Ruiz P.A., d/b/a MSP Recovery Law Firm (the “Law Firm”), described in more detail below under “Fee Sharing Arrangement,” and other law firms, to pursue recoveries using a variety of methods, including, but not limited to, demand letters, litigation, private lien resolution programs, and the submission of Claims to mass tort or antitrust settlement coordinators.

Medicare and the MSP Law

The Medicare Secondary Payer Act

The MSP Act states that, under certain conditions, Medicare is the secondary payer rather than the primary payer for its insureds. When Medicare (or an MAO) makes a payment for medical services that are the responsibility of a primary plan under the MSP Act, those payments are conditional. Conditional payments are made by Medicare (or an MAO) as an accommodation for its beneficiaries but are secondary and subject to reimbursement in all situations where one of the statutorily enumerated sources of primary coverage was obligated to pay instead.

Subsequent to the initial passage of the MSP Laws, Congress provided a private cause of action, authorizing private parties to recover unreimbursed payments in cases where a primary plan fails to pay or provide appropriate reimbursement in accordance with MSP Laws. We use the current MSP Laws, among others, including the double damages provision, to hold primary payers accountable. The U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives is currently contemplating the Repair Abuses of MSP Payments Act, re-introduced in May 2023, which seeks to limit the application of the private cause of action under the Medicare Secondary Payer Act and related double damages provisions.

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Medicare Advantage Plans

In 1997, Congress enacted the Medicare Part C program to allow Medicare beneficiaries to receive Medicare Part A and B benefits through privately-run managed care plans. Under the Medicare Advantage program, a private insurance company contracts with CMS to provide Medicare Parts A and B benefits on behalf of Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Plan ("MA Plan"). Under such a contract, the MAO receives a fixed amount per enrollee (the “Capitation”) and must provide at least the same level of benefits that enrollees would receive under the fee-for-service option. The Capitation structure incentivizes MAOs to provide Medicare benefits more efficiently than under the fee-for-service model due to the competition among MAOs for enrollees as well as the savings recovered from primary payers resulting in additional benefits to enrollees.

An MAO’s payment obligation under Part C is coextensive with that of the Secretary under Parts A and B. Part C includes a reference to the MSP Act and renders an MAO a “secondary payer” under the Act. In addition, the CMS regulations provide that an MAO will exercise the same rights to recovery from a primary plan, entity or individual that the HHS Secretary exercises under the MSP regulations. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit has accordingly recognized parity between MAOs and Medicare, as “Congress empowered (and perhaps obligated) MAOs to make secondary payments under the same circumstances as the Secretary.” MAOs, however, are merely the first layer of the Medicare Advantage program. Due to the customary practices within the MAO industry, the financial injury caused by a primary plan’s failure to reimburse conditional payments is often felt primarily by First Tier and Downstream Entities.

First-Tier and Downstream Entities

Federal regulations recognize Medicare first-tier and downstream entities as active participants in the provision of benefits under Medicare Part C. 42 C.F.R. § 422.2 defines a “First-Tier Entity” as “any party that enters into an acceptable written arrangement with an MA organization or contract applicant to provide administrative services or health care services for a Medicare eligible individual.” A “Downstream Entity” is an entity that enters into a similar written arrangement at a level below that of a First-Tier Entity. Such written arrangements continue down to the level of the ultimate provider of both health and administrative services. These contracts are both encouraged and regulated by CMS, which requires First-Tier and Downstream Entities to furnish healthcare services in a manner consistent with the dictates of the Medicare program and a MA plan’s obligations thereunder. In this way, First-Tier and Downstream Entities are the parties responsible for managing and providing healthcare services to Medicare beneficiaries under the Medicare Advantage program.

First-Tier entities include MSOs and IPAs. An IPA is a business entity organized and owned by a network of independent physician practices for the purpose of reducing overhead and optimizing efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of health care to Medicare beneficiaries. Put simply, IPAs are healthcare providers who often bear the full financial risk of managing their patients’ care. An MSO is a group that owns or manages multiple physician practices for the same purpose. The core business of IPAs and MSOs within the Medicare Part C infrastructure is to manage the care of patients, leverage their delivery systems, and focus on preventive health in order to create value and cost savings.

Because of an MSO and IPA’s role as a point of service provider and manager of a beneficiary’s care, MAOs customarily pass their risk of loss onto MSOs and IPAs. Under these arrangements, an MAO deducts a percentage of the CMS capitation rate for its administrative costs and pays the balance to the IPA or MSO. In exchange, the provider (IPA or MSO) assumes the full financial risk for the care of the MAO’s enrollee. As such, “at-risk” IPAs and MSOs are charged with producing competition, innovation, progress, and savings in the Medicare Part C environment. In accepting the full financial risk of a Medicare beneficiary’s health care, an IPA or MSO assumes the MAO’s position within the Medicare Part C framework.

When a Medicare Advantage enrollee is injured in an accident, an IPA or MSO can meet its obligation to that enrollee in one of two ways. First, it can render the requisite care to the enrollee directly through its network of physicians, providers, or medical centers. Under this scenario, the MSO or IPA suffers the full cost of providing items and services to the Medicare beneficiary.

Alternatively, if the enrollee is treated in an emergency room or other facility outside of the MSO or IPA’s provider system, then the MSO or IPA may make a conditional payment for the cost of that treatment because it is financially responsible for the enrollee’s care. Under this second scenario, the contracting MAO pays the outside provider (i.e., the emergency room) and then charges the full amount of that payment to the MSO or IPA who bears the risk of loss. In other words, the MSO or IPA must reimburse the MAO for the full amount of its payment to the outside provider (or that payment is applied as a set-off against capitated funds that the MSO or IPA would otherwise receive).

If an MAO makes a secondary payment which is later appropriately reimbursed by a primary payer, then the MAO will not charge and collect that same amount from the MSO or IPA responsible for that particular enrollee. On the other hand, if the primary payer violates the MSP Act, it is First-Tier and Downstream Entities that are damaged as a result. When an MSO or IPA is damaged by a primary payer, that entity may likewise turn to the MSP Act’s broadly worded private cause of action against the primary payer.

Double Damages. Under existing statutory and case law, the private cause of action under the MSP Act permits an award of double damages when a primary plan fails to provide for primary payment or appropriate reimbursement. We are entitled to pursue medical expenses paid by our Assignors that should have been paid by Primary Plans. Under the MSP Act, we are entitled to pursue double the amount that a provider charged. The private cause of action under 42 U.S.C. § 1395y(b)(3)(A), works in concert with 42

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U.S.C. § 1395w-22(a)(4), which expressly provides MAOs with the right to “charge or authorize the provider of such services to charge, in accordance with the charges allowed under a law, plan, or policy, described in such section the insurance carrier, employer, or other entity which under such law, plan, or policy is to pay for the provision of such services…” Moreover, the MSP regulations in Part 411 also support the fact that a provider may bill its full charges for services to primary payers. The statute provides the Company the ability to seek double the charged or otherwise Billed Amounts from primary plans. The payment disparity between the Paid Amount and the Billed Amount creates a free rider scenario where the primary payer is in a better financial position if it does not comply with the law. In other words, if a primary payer’s liability is capped at double the Paid Amount (an amount less than what the primary payer would have paid) then the entire purpose of the MSP Act—to make Medicare secondary—is defeated. That is why Congress set the damage amount at the amount billed by the provider; to incentivize compliance with the MSP Act. However, the Repair Abuses of MSP Payments Act (S.1607/H.R.3388) (the “RAMP Act”) introduced by Senators Tim Scott (R-SC) and Maggie Hassan (D-NH) and Representatives Brad Schneider (D-IL) and Gus Bilirakis (R-FL) in the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives, respectively, could limit potential double damage recoveries to group health plans only, as defined in paragraph 42 U.S.C. § 1395y(b)(1)(A)(v)). This legislation, if enacted as proposed, would not apply retroactively, and would not affect our existing portfolio of Claims or lawsuits filed prior to its potential enactment.

Interest Multiple. In addition to the Billed Amount, the Company is entitled to pursue interest pursuant to Section 1862(b)(2)(B)(i) of the Social Security Act and 42 C.F.R. § 411.24(m), which provides express authority to assess interest on Medicare Secondary Payer debts. Therefore, when recovery is pursued through litigation, we seek to recover double the amount owed for our Assignor’s accident-related medical expenses, plus accrued statutory interest due pursuant to the MSP Laws.

Pursuant to federal and state laws, we believe the Company has an established basis for future recoveries, often in excess of the Paid Amount. By discovering, quantifying, and settling the gap between Paid Amount and Billed Amount on a large scale, we believe we are positioned to generate meaningful profit margins. Pursuant to the “right-to-charge” provision in the MSP Laws, an MAO may charge, or authorize providers to charge, insurance carriers for usual, customary, and reasonable charges permitted by the law, plan, or policy, such as the Billed Amount. As such laws, plans, and policies provide for payment of the providers’ actual charges (the Billed Amount), rather than the reduced Medicare payments, we pursue recovery of the Billed Amount and in certain cases, as provided by law, double the Billed Amount for medical services and treatments. The below graphic demonstrates the difference between the Paid Amount, the Billed Amount, and the potential for double damages. For additional information, see “Development of Medicare and the MSP Law” below.

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https://cdn.kscope.io/3a7563fe310b47312e53be4e9909d406-img212923458_0.jpg 

 

Mandatory Reporting

The Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Extension Act of 2007 (“MMSEA”): MMSEA added mandatory reporting requirements with respect to Medicare beneficiaries who have coverage under group health plan arrangements as well as for Medicare beneficiaries who receive settlements, judgments, awards, or other payment from liability insurance (including self-insurance), no-fault insurance, or workers’ compensation. Failure to comply with MMSEA may result in a civil money penalty of $1,000 for each day of noncompliance for each individual for which the information should have been submitted. This civil money penalty is in addition to any other penalties prescribed by law and in addition to any Medicare secondary payer Claim under this title with respect to an individual. Although we are not entitled to pursue MMSEA penalties on our own behalf, we have filed a qui tam lawsuits on behalf of the federal government to enforce this federal law.

Recent Updates - Corporate Rebranding

In January 2023, we rebranded to LifeWallet. The core strategy and business of the Company remains the same—secondary payer reimbursement recoveries. However, utilizing the name LifeWallet reflects the diverse recovery opportunities presented by the Company’s growing technological innovations and consolidates current and future lines of business under one name, while positioning the Company for future revenues streams.

The LifeWallet Ecosystem

We are developing LifeWallet—a versatile, scalable, and expandable ecosystem, where tokenized data is stored in a secure, user friendly platform with multiple applications. LifeWallet is expected to provide real-time analytics at the point of care, helping identify the primary insurer, assisting providers in receiving reasonable and customary rates for accident-related treatment, shortening the company’s collection time frame, and increasing revenue visibility and predictability. The platform aims to avoid the improper documenting of medical Claims that lead to improper billing, thereby preventing fraud, waste, and abuse, and is also expected to provide an application programming interface that allows patients to gain immediate access to all of their medical records when seeking medical treatments. LifeWallet incorporates extensive privacy and security standards and is HIPAA compliant.

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A number of applications that will be powered by LifeWallet are currently in development, including:

LifeWallet Sports. LifeWallet Sports empowers student-athletes to maximize their Name, Image, and Likeness (“NIL”) rights by connecting them with brands and businesses. The platform assists athletes in deal negotiation and rule compliance and enables brands and businesses to identify talent, schedule events, monitor campaigns, and much more.
Chase to Pay Services. Over time we intend to shift our core business to the Chase to Pay service platform powered by LifeWallet (“Chase to Pay”). Chase to Pay is being developed to locate and organize users’ medical records to facilitate efficient access and enable informed decision-making and improved patient care. A real-time, analytics driven platform that identifies the proper primary payer at the point of care, Chase to Pay is intended to plug into the real-time medical utilization platforms used by providers at the point of care.
LifeWallet Health. LifeWallet Health is being developed to give patients the ultimate control over their healthcare data by providing easy access to their medical history, providing healthcare notifications, and utilizing a wide variety of data points to improve overall patient care.
LifeChain. LifeChain is being developed to tokenize healthcare Claims and patient records using blockchain technology, to enable adjudication of Claims upfront, in real-time, with complete transparency. LifeChain aims to reduce costs, maximize provider revenue, improve patient care, and eliminate fraud, while maintaining patient privacy using decentralized biometric authentication.
LifeWallet 911. LifeWallet 911 is being developed for utilization by emergency service organizations to improve the facilitation of emergency services by providing 911 operators, dispatchers, and emergency medical providers with immediate access to vital information to reduce response times and improve patient outcomes.
LifeWallet Legal. LifeWallet Legal is being developed to bring together clients and attorneys through a trusted, verified data platform to facilitate the efficient processing of Claims for improved legal outcomes.
LifeWallet EDU. LifeWallet EDU is being developed to provide an intelligent infrastructure and security solutions for educational institutions, utilizing biometric technology to prevent safety breaches in real-time, thus providing unparalleled security for students, faculty, and staff.

Competitive Strengths

Irrevocable Assignments

We differ from competitors as we receive irrevocable assignments of recovery rights associated with certain healthcare related Claims. When we are assigned these rights, we obtain ownership in those rights that our competitors do not. Rather than provide services under third-party vendor services contracts, we receive the rights to our Assignors’ Claims, and therefore step into the Assignor’s shoes. As assignees, we are the plaintiff in any action filed in connection with such Claims, we maintain control over the direction of the litigation, and we can pursue additional recoveries under numerous legal theories that our competitors cannot.

Scale of Current Portfolio

Our current portfolio has scaled significantly. As of December 31, 2022, we have been assigned recovery rights on Claims valued at approximately $1,574 billion in Billed Amount (and approximately $375 billion in Paid Amount), of which approximately $89.6 billion is PVPRC.

We are typically entitled to 100% of recoveries pursuant to our Claims cost recovery agreements (“CCRA”). From those recoveries, we are typically contractually obligated to pay 50% of recoveries to the Assignor, plus attorneys' fees and costs associated with pursuit of the recoveries. In certain cases, we have purchased the Assignor's rights to recovery proceeds in advance of any collection; therefore, entitling the Company to retain 100% of the recovery proceeds, net of attorneys' fees and costs. As of December 31, 2022, we were entitled to up to approximately 54% in the aggregate of the approximately $89.6 billion in PVPRC. Our recoveries would constitute a portion of the approximately $89.6 billion in PVPRC that may be recovered, after giving effect to our expenses, including any contingent fee payment payable to the Law Firm. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Company's Business and Industry.” This approximately $89.6 billion in PVPRC was identified using our Algorithms which comb through historical paid Claims data and to identify potential recoveries. As of December 31, 2022, the approximately $89.6 billion in PVPRC and approximately $375 billion in Paid Amount included approximately $5.5 billion and approximately $24.4 billion in capitated payments, respectively. Such capitated amounts are typically based on a fixed amount per enrollee in a plan rather than amounts paid on a fee-for-service basis and, in calculating the equivalent of Paid Amount for purposes of measuring potential recoveries, in cases where payments were based on capitated amounts, MSP Recovery reviews capitated encounter data typically found in Medicare Part B payments. The Company has successfully recovered full amounts on these capitated payments in prior settlements.

The typical timeline for Claims being identified as potentially recoverable Claims to actual Claims recovery revenue can vary greatly depending on the complexity of the recovery strategy and litigation, as well as the status of each Claim in the recovery process. The Company monitors the penetration status of the Claims portfolio, which categories the status of cases based on their status in the

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recovery process in the following categories: in development, recovery process initiated, data collected and matched, resolution discussions in process and other cases. Potentially recoverable Claims can take years to reach resolution based on a variety of factors.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/3a7563fe310b47312e53be4e9909d406-img212923458_1.jpg 

 

Our Proprietary Data Analytics System

We believe our access to large volumes of data, sophisticated data analytics, and leading technology platforms provide a unique opportunity to discover and recover Claims. Our Algorithms comb through historical paid Claims data to identify potential recovery opportunities. As of December 31, 2022, we estimate a PVPRC of $89.6 billion. Through data mining, we continue to identify new recovery opportunities.

Our Founders and Broad Team with Extensive Legal Experience

Experienced management gives us a competitive advantage. Our founder, John H. Ruiz, is recognized as one of America’s pre-eminent trial lawyers, named “2019’s DBR Florida Trailblazer” for groundbreaking work in integrating data analytics into the practice of law and for the impact it is having on healthcare recoveries. Over the course of a distinguished 30-year legal career, Mr. Ruiz has gained national recognition in class action, mass tort litigation, multi-district litigation (“MDL”) consolidated cases, medical malpractice, products liability, personal injury, real estate, and aviation disaster cases. Our Chief Legal Officer, Frank C. Quesada, has extensive experience in healthcare litigation, including numerous legal wins in state and federal court, at the trial and appellate levels.

Due to our team’s extensive knowledge of the MSP Laws, and decades of experience in data analytics within the medical industry, we believe we are well positioned to recover monies owed to our Assignors under the MSP Laws, as well as other state and federal laws. We use our proprietary software and a highly trained staff including IT personnel, accountants, statisticians, physicians, data analysts and attorneys to maximize the recovery of Claims already paid.

Growth Strategy

Expansion of Assignor Claims. CMS has projected that health spending will continue to grow at an average rate of 5.4% a year between 2019 and 2028. We anticipate that this trend will be reflected in our own growth. We plan to expand our Assignor base by implementing new strategies to secure new Assignors and continue receiving assignments of Claims from our existing Assignors. These strategies will include a platform to educate potential Assignors about our company, making strategic business partnerships, potential mergers, acquisitions of personnel, as well as other marketing strategies.

Further Development of our Chase to Pay Services. The Company is currently developing the Chase to Pay model. This model will allow payers and providers to identify the proper primary payer in real time, at the point of care. Our plan is to develop these services to form a source of revenue that does not require the acquisition costs and recovery sharing associated with our Claims recovery business.

Continued Development of our Data Analytics System. We will also continue to develop our proprietary system and anticipate shifting to AI and machine learning to better enhance our recovery potential. The development of our system will allow us to be more efficient in the services we provide our Assignors, as well as being able to attract more Assignors.

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Monetizing Existing Software Applications. We intend to offer certain of our software applications, including our Claims to Med application as separate products. The Claims to Med application translates the codified component of procedural codes (“CPT codes”) from medical Claims data and medical bills into medical records that are consistent with Claims records. This allows patients, providers, attorneys, corporations, and the general public to better understand their medical history.

Our Services

Claims Recovery

As part of our Claims recovery business, we pursue a number of types of recoveries, including:

Contractual Cases

When Medicare or an MAO, as a secondary payer, makes a payment on behalf of a beneficiary for injuries related to the use, maintenance, or operation of a vehicle, that payment may be recoverable from a no-fault insurer, as a primary payer. No-fault coverage does not require an assessment of liability, and thus, when a covered medical expense is incurred, the insurer must accept primary payer responsibility. The no-fault insurer’s failure to pay or reimburse Medicare and MAOs constitutes a breach of the beneficiary’s no-fault coverage, and a violation of the MSP Laws.

Settlement Cases

The MSP Act allows Medicare beneficiaries, providers and MAOs to seek reimbursement from any entity or person that has settled a dispute and failed to pay or reimburse Medicare and MAOs for an enrollee’s medical expenses related to that dispute. We review our Assignor’s Claims data and compare these records with the CMS database and court dockets to determine if any of our Assignor’s enrollees have been involved in a dispute that resulted in a settlement.

Product Liability

Defective or dangerous products cause thousands of injuries every year. Many product liability cases arise from instances in which an implantable medical device causes an adverse reaction due to a design or manufacturing defect. These adverse reactions may range from minor rashes to cancer and subsequent death. Where Medicare or an MAO has paid an enrollee’s medical expenses for these injuries, we can pursue recoveries.

Antitrust-Pharmaceutical

Antitrust laws, including the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 (the “Sherman Act”) and the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 (the “Clayton Act”) and analogous state unfair competition laws prohibit business practices that unreasonably deprive consumers of the benefits of competition, resulting in higher prices for products and services. The Sherman Act also outlaws all contracts, combinations, and conspiracies that unreasonably restrain interstate and foreign trade.

Our antitrust cases typically derive from one of the two following scenarios: (1) either a group of manufacturers who make similar products decide to raise product prices collectively irrespective of market fluctuations; or (2) a manufacturer of a branded pharmaceutical enters into a “pay for delay” agreement with a generic drug manufacturer so that the generic drug manufacturer delays the market launch of a cheaper competing drug. We bring antitrust Claims on behalf of our Assignors under both scenarios pursuant to the Sherman Act, the Clayton Act and state unfair competition laws.

False Claims Act

The False Claims Act (the “FCA”) is widely regarded as an effective tool in combating waste, fraud and abuse against the federal government. The FCA prohibits the submission of false or fraudulent Claims for payment from the government. The FCA, which imposes civil penalties, fees, and treble damages for fraudulent claims, permits private individuals to file qui tam suits on behalf of the federal government.

Mass Tort and Private Lien Resolution Programs

When a defendant in an MDL settles its cases with the plaintiffs, the issues can be resolved through a Master Settlement Agreement (“MSA”), which settles all pending lawsuits and provides that the defendant(s) agrees to set aside funds to settle the MDL related cases involving various conditions.

MSAs govern the terms of the settlement and provide for the resolution of all liens against the settlement proceeds. A lien resolution administrator assists in resolving all liens that are asserted by government payers or private payers against settlement funds and ensures that all such liens are resolved prior to settlement payments being disbursed to the settling claimants.

An MSA typically provides for a Private Lien Resolution Agreement (the “PLRP Agreement”) whereby the lien resolution administrator and our entities (the “MSP Group”) establish an efficient procedure to resolve MSP Group’s Claims and liens accordingly.

Upon payment of MSP Group’s liens as provided in the PLRP Agreement, MSP Group’s reimbursement Claims against recoveries by claimants as defined in the MSA are resolved, and all potential liabilities related to such liens in favor of MSP Group are

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released. The only liens subject to resolution are those liens that qualify for a settlement payment pursuant to the MSA. No other Claims owned or otherwise held by the MSP Group are encompassed in the PLRP Agreement.

MSP Group conducts an analysis of the claimants in the MDL settlement and identifies liens belonging to MSP Group arising from medical care and treatment provided to claimants for which MSP Group has a legal right of recovery. A lien administrator provides the list of claimants to MSP Group. MSP Group then provides the Claims data supporting MSP Group’s liens to the lien administrator, which includes the specific Billed and Paid Amount of MSP Group’s liens. The lien administrator reviews and verifies MSP Group’s data and confirms that the Claims included in the liens are reimbursable.

Our Claims Portfolio

As of December 31, 2022, we have received assignments to recovery rights for more than 160 Assignors in the Medicare, Medicaid, and commercial Insurance segments, associated with approximately $1.573 trillion in Billed Amount of health care Claims. We have been assigned Claims from all 50 states, as well as Puerto Rico. Each dot in the following graphic represents a ZIP code for which the Company maintains data.

We typically acquire recovery rights by entering into a CCRA with an Assignor, pursuant to which the Assignor assigns all right, title, and interest in and to its Claims recovery and reimbursement rights to the Company, or to an affiliated entity, partner, or investor, in exchange for (a) deferred compensation, typically structured as 50% of any net recovery earned by and paid to us, or (b) an upfront lump sum payment. Some of these CCRAs are “limited recovery” agreements, meaning that they are limited in time or scope as to what is assigned to us. For example, certain of our CCRAs relate specifically to claims against manufacturers, distributors, and producers of Actos, pioglitazone, metformin, glimepiride, or Duetact. Additionally, certain other CCRAs relate specifically to healthcare services rendered and paid for during a specified timeframe. In general, our CCRAs allow the Company to recover historical Claims. Under some of the CCRAs, the Company has been assigned historical Claims and the Assignor has agreed to continue assigning Claims data. The Company currently expects to generate a substantial portion of total revenue from current CCRAs through recoveries on historical Claims under our Recovery Model. The Company believes as it builds out the Chase to Pay platform and recovery model, a significant portion of the Company’s revenue from these CCRAs will be derived through the Chase to Pay model by recovering on Claims as they occur.

In the cases where we acquire recovery rights for an upfront lump sum payment, instead of a CCRA, we typically enter into a Claims Purchase and Assignment Agreement (“CPAA”). Under a typical CPAA, an entity assigns all right, title, and interest in and to its Claims recovery and reimbursement rights to us (or our affiliated entity, partner or investor) in exchange for an upfront lump sum payment. In these arrangements, we (or our affiliated entity, partner or investor) would typically own 100% of all future net recoveries from those purchased Claims. Often times the CPAA includes a provision to continue acquiring future Claims from the Assignor.

MSP Lien Resolver

We intend to further develop and expand the offering for our MSP Lien Resolver. MSP Lien Resolver is a disruptive new product that helps identify, quantify, and resolve outstanding liens. Key areas of functionality for MSP Lien Resolver include modules for related lien notices, Claims history, Claims dispute and negotiation, and case settlement and payment. MSP Lien Resolver benefits us because the additional proprietary data enhances overall data quality and efficacy. This product also deepens relationships with attorneys and outside information providers.

 

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Sales and Marketing

Our sales force is comprised of internal and external sales professionals. Our sales force identifies potential Assignors and manages relationships with existing Assignors. The sales force is incentivized via a recovery-based strategy. Once we have received recoveries for Claims related to an Assignor, the applicable sales professional is compensated. This mechanism ensures low fixed costs while offering a potentially generous commission model.

Among other things, our marketing strategies generate new Assignor leads, by educating investors and Assignors about our Company.

Licensing and Regulation

We are subject to federal and state laws and regulations governing privacy, security and breaches of patient information and the conduct of certain electronic health care transactions, including, HIPAA and other health information privacy and security requirements. Some of our Assignors with which we have or may establish business relationships, are “Covered Entities” that are regulated under HIPAA. We also are a “Business Associate” of our Assignors; as such, we must comply with HIPAA regulations. To provide our Covered Entity Assignors with services that involve the use or disclosure of protected health information, HIPAA requires us to enter into Business Associate agreements with our Assignors.

In addition to HIPAA, we may be subject to other U.S. federal and state laws relating to the collection, dissemination, use of and access to, personal information. While we believe that we are in material compliance with such laws and regulations, failure to comply with these laws could expose us to lawsuits, data security incidents, regulatory enforcement or fines.

Intellectual Property and R&D

We rely on trade secret laws. We use a combination of confidential agreements and licenses with our Assignors, employees, vendors, and other parties. We also rely on other security measures to control the access to our confidential information, software, and other intellectual property.

Our research and development team uses proprietary software and a highly trained staff including I.T. personnel, accountants, statisticians, physicians, data analysts and attorneys to search through numerous data sources. We will continue the investment of resources into our proprietary systems.

Our intellectual property licensing agreements grant, during the term of the agreement, a non-exclusive, non-transferable, non-assignable, irrevocable, worldwide, fully paid-up license under our software and technology to use, perform, import, export, and all other rights pursuant to our software and technology solely in connection with the parties’ assigned Claims and the transactions contemplated in the agreements between the parties. Nothing in these agreements affect our ownership or control in our software and technology. Except for the license, all of our other rights with respect to our software and technology are reserved.

Competition

We believe we do not have any direct competitors. Other entities in the industry act as vendors and pursue reactive recoveries, while we aggressively pursue recoveries on our own behalf, using various state and federal laws. Although somewhat different in approach, we compete with in-house recovery departments, collection and financial services companies and other companies. Some of these entities are Cotiviti Holdings, Inc., MultiPlan Corporation, Encore Capital Group, Inovalon Holdings, Inc., Optum, Inc., Verisk Health, Inc., McKesson Corporation, Change Healthcare Corporation, HMS Holdings Corp., The Rawlings Group, Equian, LLC, Trover Solutions, Inc. and other, smaller companies.

Human Capital

Our employees and culture are critical components to our success and growth as a company. As of December 31, 2022, we had approximately 100 employees. None of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements or represented by a labor union. We believe that the relationships we have with our employees are positive.

In addition, we employ specialized contract or part-time employees on a temporary basis, which include highly trained IT personnel, accountants, statisticians, physicians, data analysts and attorneys to maximize the recovery of Claims. We have historically been able to transition many of these top performers from contract or part-time to full time employment.

We strive to attract, develop, and retain the best talent by providing competitive pay and benefits, continuous growth and development, and a diverse and inclusive workplace. Our human capital resource objectives include not only acquiring the best talent but also motivating those that drive our business forward. We aim to achieve these objectives using generous compensation programs and offering a one-of-a-kind employee experience.

To better develop and incentivize our employees, we regularly provide employee feedback and recognition. We have an annual bonus program, and we utilize spot bonuses in order to continue to drive our employees to find opportunities and innovate our business.

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Fee Sharing Arrangements

We engage with each Assignor independently. As stated above, typically our Assignors irrevocably assign to us broad recovery rights to the Claims assigned. Generally, the assignment agreements provide for the Assignor to receive 50% of the Net Proceeds of any recoveries from the Claims assigned. The “Net Proceeds” of any assigned Claim is defined as the gross amount recovered on an assigned Claim, minus any costs directly traceable to such assigned Claim(s) for which recovery was made. In some instances, we may purchase outright an Assignor’s recovery rights; in this instance, we are entitled to the entire recovery.

We enter into legal services agreements with the Law Firm and the various entities that hold Claims. In this relationship, the Company (and other Claims holding entities) is the plaintiff and the Law Firm serves as its counsel. The Law Firm is engaged to act as exclusive lead counsel to represent MSP Recovery and each of its subsidiaries and affiliates (or other applicable entity) as it pertains to the Assigned Claims, on a contingency basis. The Law Firm engages outside litigation counsel from around the nation as co-counsel and these arrangements are made directly between the Law Firm and other counsel. For the services provided, the Law Firm is typically entitled 40% of our 50% portion of the Gross Proceeds (i.e., 20% of the total Gross Proceeds). This contingency fee can change in the future. The Law Firm is also entitled to attorneys’ fees that are awarded pursuant to any fee shifting statute, by agreement, or court award.

The below is an illustration of how the recovery proceeds arrangement typically works when co-counsel is (and is not) involved:

 

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Seasonality

Seasonality does not have a material impact on our business.

Other Information about MSP Recovery, Inc. d/b/a LifeWallet

We make available free of charge through our website, www.msprecovery.com, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. In addition, our website includes other items related to corporate governance matters, including, among other things, our corporate governance principles, charters of various committees of the Board of Directors, and our code of conduct applicable to all employees, officers and directors. We intend to disclose on our internet website any amendments to or waivers from our code of business conduct and ethics as well as any amendments to its corporate governance principles or the charters of various committees of the Board of Directors. Copies of these documents may be obtained, free of charge, from our website. The SEC also maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file periodic and other reports electronically with the SEC. The address of that site is www.sec.gov. The information available on or through our website is not a part of this Annual Report and should not be relied upon.

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Forward-Looking Statements

Certain of the statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Annual Report") are forward-looking and constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. Forward-looking statements may generally be identified by the use of words such as "anticipate," "believe," "could," "expect," "intend," "plan," "predict," "may," "should," and "will" or, in each case, their negative, or other variations or comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include all matters that are not historical facts, including, for example, guidance for 2023 portfolio recovery and revenue. By their nature, forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that may or may not occur in the future. As a result, these statements are not guarantees of future performance or results and actual events may differ materially from those expressed in or suggested by the forward-looking statements. Although we believe that our expectations are based on reasonable assumptions within the bounds of our knowledge of our industry, business and operations, we cannot guarantee that actual results will not differ materially from our expectations. In evaluating such forward-looking statements, you should specifically consider various factors, including the risks outlined under "Risk Factors." Any forward-looking statement made by LifeWallet herein speaks only as of the date made. The discussion of risks and uncertainties set forth in this Annual Report is not necessarily a complete or exhaustive list of all risks facing the Company at any particular point in time. New risks and uncertainties come up from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predictor identify all such events or to assess either the impact of all such risk factors on our business or the extent to which any individual risk factor, combination of factors, or new or altered factors, may cause results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement. LifeWallet has no obligation, and does not intend, to update any forward-looking statements after the date hereof for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future, except as required by federal securities laws. Factors that could cause these differences include, but are not limited to, LifeWallet's ability to capitalize on its assignment agreements and recover monies that were paid by the assignors; the inherent uncertainty surrounding settlement negotiations and/or litigation, including with respect to both the amount and timing of any such results; the validity of the assignments of Claims to LifeWallet; the ability to successfully expand the scope of our Claims or obtain new data and Claims from LifeWallet's existing assignor base or otherwise; LifeWallet's ability to innovate and develop new solutions, and whether those solutions will be adopted by LifeWallet's existing and potential assignors; negative publicity concerning healthcare data analytics and payment accuracy; compliance with the listing standards of The Nasdaq Capital Market; and those other factors listed under "Risk Factors" below and elsewhere in this Annual Report and other reports filed by the Company with the SEC. Unless the context requires otherwise or unless otherwise noted, all references in this Annual Report to "LifeWallet," "MSP Recovery," "MSP," "the Company," "we," "us," or "our" are to MSP Recovery, Inc., d/b/a LifeWallet, a Delaware corporation.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risk factors, together with all of the other information included in this Form 10-K before making an investment decision. The occurrence of one or more of the events or circumstances described in these risk factors, alone or in combination with other events or circumstances may have an adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition, and results of operations. You should also carefully consider the following risk factors in addition to the other information included in this Form 10-K, including matters addressed in the section entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” We may face additional risks and uncertainties that are not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial, which may also impair our business or financial condition. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes to the financial statements included herein.

Risk Factors Summary

The following is a summary of some of the Company’s most important risks and uncertainties that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. You should read this summary together with the more detailed description of each risk factor. Additional discussion of the risks summarized in this Risk Factors Summary, and other risks that we face, can be found below under the heading “Risk Factors” and should be carefully considered, together with other information in this Form 10-K and our other filings with the SEC, before making an investment in our securities.

Risks Related to the Company’s Business and Industry:

We have a history of net losses and no substantial revenue to date, and we may not achieve recoveries, generate significant revenue or achieve profitability.
We have a limited history of actual recoveries to date, and there are risks associated with estimating the amount of revenue that we recognize from the recovery.
Litigation outcomes are inherently risky, and we depend upon the due care of lawyers and the court system. Unfavorable court rulings, delays, damages limitations, and our ability to collect on judgments in our favor could adversely affect our business.

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Counterparties in our lawsuits employ dilatory tactics that delay the resolution of litigation or settlement negotiations, which increases the costs associated with recoveries and substantially delays the outcome of our cases and any associated revenue recognition.
Our fee sharing arrangement with the Law Firm materially reduces our recoveries.
Assignors may pursue recovery on Claims directly or may use recovery agents other than us in connection with the Assignor’s efforts to recover on Claims.
Our business and future growth depend on our ability to successfully expand the volume of our healthcare Claims and obtain data from new Assignors and healthcare Claims from our existing Assignor base.
The positions we will typically acquire in connection with our acquisition of Claims are unsecured and may be effectively subordinated to other obligations and are at risk to fraud on the part of the Assignor of the Claim.
Healthcare spending fluctuations, simplification of the healthcare delivery and reimbursement system, programmatic changes to the scope of benefits and limitations to payment integrity initiatives could reduce the need for our data-driven solutions.
If our existing Assignors prematurely terminate their agreement with us or if either party materially breaches an agreement, and we can no longer receive future assignments of healthcare Claims recoveries, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We have long sales and implementation cycles for many of our data-driven solutions and may fail to close sales after expending time and resources, or experience delays in implementing the solutions.
If our Assignors’ risk agreements change, it can have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our use and disclosure of individually identifiable information, including health information, is subject to federal and state privacy and security regulations, and our failure to comply with those regulations or adequately secure the information we hold could result in significant liability or reputational harm.
If we fail to innovate and develop new solutions, or if these new solutions are not adopted by existing and potential Assignors or other users, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in the United States healthcare environment, or in laws relating to healthcare programs and policies, and steps we take in anticipation of such changes, particularly as they relate to the Affordable Care Act and Medicare and Medicaid programs, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A significant portion of our Claims comes from a limited number of Assignors who have relationships with key existing payers, and the loss of one or more of these Assignors or disruptions in Assignor-payer relationships, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The data healthcare analytics and healthcare payment market are relatively new and unpenetrated, and may not develop, develop more slowly than we expect, or sustain negative publicity which may adversely affect our business.
We face significant competition, and we expect competition to increase.
Failure to adequately protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, know-how, proprietary applications, business processes other proprietary information and trademarks could adversely affect the value of our technology and products.
Our qui tam litigation may be subject to government intervention and dismissal pursuant to 31 U.S.C. § 3730(2)(A).
We are subject to extensive government regulation. Any violation of the laws and regulations applicable to us or a negative audit or investigation finding could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our business depends on effective information processing systems that are compliant with current HIPAA transaction and code set standards and the integrity of the data in, and operations of, our information systems, as well as those of other entities that provide us with data or receive data from us.
In the event we fail to maintain our Security Organization Control 2, HITRUST, or other certifications, we could be in breach of our obligations under our contracts, fines and other penalties could result and we may suffer reputational harm and damage to our business.
We may make acquisitions of businesses or Claim recovery interests that prove unsuccessful, and any mergers, acquisitions, dispositions or joint venture activities may change our business and financial results and introduce new risks.

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We have a substantial amount of indebtedness and payment obligations, and together with any future indebtedness or payment obligations, could adversely affect our ability to operate our business.
Failure to obtain or maintain ongoing financing to fund operations could negatively impact our business.
Adverse judgments or settlements in litigation, regulatory or other dispute resolution proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we fail to accurately calculate the Paid Amount and Paid Value of Potential Recoverable Claims, it can have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.
Failure of our software vendors, utility providers and network providers to perform as expected, changes in our relationships with them, or losing access to data sources may adversely affect our business.
We may be sued by third parties for alleged infringement of their proprietary rights.
Changes in, or interpretations of, tax rules and regulations may adversely affect our effective tax rates.
We will be required to pay the Tax Receivable Agreement (“TRA”) Parties (as defined in the TRA) for most of the benefits relating to, among other things, an increase in tax attributes as a result of the Company’s direct and indirect allocable share of existing tax basis acquired in the Business Combination, and the Company’s increase in its allocable share of existing tax basis and anticipated tax basis adjustments we receive in connection with sales or exchanges of Up-C Units after the Business Combination.
Our success is dependent upon the efforts of our key personnel. The loss of key personnel could negatively impact the operations and profitability of the Company and its financial condition could suffer as a result.
We might be unable to successfully recruit and retain qualified employees.
General economic, political and market forces and dislocations beyond our control could reduce demand for our solutions and our overall business may suffer from an economic downturn.
COVID-19 or another pandemic, epidemic, or outbreak of an infectious disease may have an adverse effect on our business, the nature and extent of which are highly uncertain and unpredictable.
We are concentrated in certain geographic regions, which makes us sensitive to regulatory, economic, environmental, and competitive conditions in those regions.

Risks Related to Our Securities:

We are controlled by the Members, including John H. Ruiz and Frank C. Quesada, whose interests may conflict with our interests and the interests of other stockholders. Further, our status as a “controlled company” on Nasdaq removes certain corporate governance protections.
Our stockholders will experience substantial dilution as a consequence of, among other transactions, any further issuance of common stock.
We may not be able to comply with Nasdaq's continued listing standards, which could cause de-listing and reduce liquidity.
Our common stock may be delisted from The Nasdaq Capital Market if we fail to comply with continued listing standards.
We may be required to take write-downs or write-offs, restructuring, and impairment or other charges that could have a significant negative effect on our financial condition, results of operations and our stock price, which could cause you to lose some or all of your investment.
We may be unable to obtain additional financing to fund the operations and growth of the Company.
Anti-takeover provisions contained in our Charter and bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.
The Charter contains a provision renouncing our interest and expectancy in certain corporate opportunities.

 

Risks Related to Ownership of our Common Stock:

The market price of our common stock may be significantly volatile.
We may redeem unexpired Public Warrants and New Warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to warrant holders, thereby making such warrants worthless.

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Our stockholders may experience significant dilution as a result of future equity offerings or issuances and exercise of outstanding options and warrants.
Warrants have become exercisable for our Class A Common Stock, which has increase the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and may result in dilution to our stockholders.
The Company’s management has limited experience in operating a public company.
Failure to establish and maintain effective internal controls could have a material adverse effect on the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting in future periods.

Risks Related to the Company’s Business and Industry

In this section “we,” “us,” “our,” and other similar terms refer to MSP Recovery, Inc. d/b/a LifeWallet and its subsidiaries prior to the Business Combination and to the Company following the Business Combination.

We have a history of net losses and no substantial revenue to date, and we may not achieve recoveries, generate significant revenue, or achieve profitability. Our relatively limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects and increases the risk of your investment.

Our relatively limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and plan for our future growth. The Company started in 2014 with its very first assignment from a health plan in Miami, Florida. To date, we have achieved no substantial revenue and limited actual recoveries from our assigned Claims, and there is no guarantee that we will achieve recoveries, revenue, or profitability as we have projected. We have encountered and will continue to encounter significant risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by new and growing companies in rapidly changing industries, such as determining appropriate investments for our limited resources, competition from other data analytics companies, acquiring and retaining Assignors, hiring, integrating, training and retaining skilled personnel, unforeseen expenses, challenges in forecasting accuracy and successfully integrating new strategies. If we are unable to achieve actual recoveries, increase our Assignor base, successfully manage our recovery efforts from third-party payers or successfully expand, our revenue and our ability to achieve and sustain profitability would be impaired. If our assumptions regarding these and other similar risks and uncertainties, which we use to plan our business, are incorrect or change as we gain more experience operating our business or due to changes in our industry, or if we do not address these challenges successfully, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations and our business could suffer.

We have a limited history of actual recoveries to date, and there are risks associated with estimating the amount of revenue that we recognize from the recovery. If our estimates of revenue are materially inaccurate, it would impact the timing and the amount of our revenue recognition and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

We have a limited track record of generating actual recoveries and related revenue from the Claims we have purchased or otherwise been assigned. There are risks associated with estimating the value of future recoveries and revenues that we may achieve under our assigned Claims. Our estimates and projections depend on significant assumptions and involve significant risks which could cause our actual results to vary materially.

Examples of material assumptions we make include, but are not limited to:

Our assessment that the assigned Claims are potentially recoverable Claims;
The achievement of multiples above the PVPRC; and
The length (and cost) of litigation required to achieve recoveries.

Any of these assumptions may prove over time to be materially inaccurate. If our estimates of revenues are materially inaccurate, it could impact the timing and the amount of our revenue recognition and have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Under most of our agreements with Assignors, we assume the risk of failure to recover on the assigned Claims, and if we fail to make recoveries with respect to the assigned Claims receivables and therefore, are unable to generate recovery proceeds greater than or equal to the amounts paid by us to purchase the assigned Claims, it can adversely affect our business.

In many instances, we pay our Assignors an upfront purchase price for assignment of their healthcare Claims recoveries. Accordingly, there is a risk that we may not successfully recapture the upfront purchase price if we fail to make recoveries with respect to the assigned Claims. Further, our ability to identify and recover on future Claims includes risks such as:

underperformance relative to our expectations and the price paid for the Claims;
unanticipated demands on our management and operational resources;
failure to successfully recover on legal Claims;

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difficulty in integrating personnel, operations, and systems;
maintaining current customers and securing future customers of the combined businesses;
assumption of liabilities; and
litigation-related charges.

Finally, our potential ability to achieve recovery revenues are based largely on the Paid Value of Potentially Recoverable Claims of our portfolio and our ability to discover, quantify, and settle the gap between Billed Amount and Paid Amount on a large scale. If we fail to accurately calculate the Paid Amount or the Paid Value of Potential Recoverable Claims, the Recovery Multiple or our recovery rights are not appropriately perfected, these factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.

Litigation outcomes are inherently risky; unfavorable court rulings, delays, damages calculations, or other limitations can adversely affect our recovery efforts, our potential to generate revenue, and our overall business.

It is difficult to predict litigation outcomes, particularly complex litigation of the type that forms the basis of our business. If we do not succeed in the litigation, if the damages awarded in our favor are less than what we expected, or if it is not possible to successfully enforce a favorable judgment, we could suffer a variety of adverse consequences, including the complete loss of potential revenue expected from that matter and, in some jurisdictions, liability for the adverse costs of the successful party to the litigation. Unfavorable litigation outcomes could, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on our business, revenue, results of operations, and financial condition.

Typically, we must file actions in court to recover monies related to those paid by our Assignors and a substantial amount of our recoveries are dependent on the courts. Because we rely on the courts to adjudicate recoveries, we can be subject to adverse court rulings, significant delays, damages calculations or other limitations, each of which can negatively impact our recovery efforts, potential to generate revenue, and financial condition of our business.

For example, from time to time, the courts dismiss our cases, or Claims pursued in our cases, with or without prejudice. When dismissal is without prejudice, we can refile the action. Accordingly, we retain the ability to bring those Claims in a recovery action. When dismissal is with prejudice, we cannot refile the action. Accordingly, we lose the ability to pursue such Claims. We cannot guarantee that we will not receive adverse rulings in court. Historically, we have received adverse rulings such as:

Dismissal for failure to file within the applicable statute of limitations. For example, on August 10, 2022, the United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit held that four-year statute of limitations period for civil actions arising under an Act of Congress enacted after December 1, 1990 applies to certain claims brought under the Medicare Secondary Payer private cause of action, and that the limitations period begins to run on the date that the cause of action accrued. This opinion may render certain Claims held by the Company unrecoverable and may substantially reduce PVPRC and BVPRC as calculated. As our cases were filed at different times and in various jurisdictions, and prior to data matching with a defendant we are not able to accurately calculate the entirety of damages specific to a given defendant, we cannot calculate with certainty the impact of this ruling at this time. Although this opinion is binding only on courts in the Eleventh Circuit, if the application of this statute of limitations as determined by the Eleventh Circuit was applied to all Claims assigned to us, we estimate that the effect would be a reduction of PVPRC by approximately $8.86 billion. As set forth in our Risk Factors, PVPRC is based on a variety of factors. As such, this estimate is subject to change based on the variety of legal claims being litigated and statute of limitations tolling theories that apply.
Dismissal because an assignment did not include the Claim that was brought in court (or such assignment was found to be invalid).
Dismissal for lack of standing to assert Claims.
Dismissal for lack of personal jurisdiction.
Dismissal for pleading deficiencies.

Additionally, in certain of our cases, our recoveries may be limited as a function of courts’ damages calculations. Adverse court rulings could also occur from:

Our assignment agreements with Assignors being deemed invalid by courts. We receive assignments of healthcare Claims from our Assignors via irrevocable assignments, which allow use to pursue those Claims that our Assignors originally owned. Enforceability of our assignment agreements is often challenged by defendants and if a court determines an assignment agreement is invalid (due to a technical deficiency or regulatory prohibition or otherwise) we will lose the ability to pursue those Claims.

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Our damages calculations include medical expenses paid by our Assignors that courts may deem unreasonable, unrelated, or unnecessary, and could lead to lower than anticipated recoveries.
Our Claims may be subject to different interpretations of the applicable statutes of limitations.

For example, in certain antitrust matters, recoveries may be limited to the difference between the price that a drug manufacturer charged for the drug and the price of the drug absent the relevant anticompetitive action. The list above is not exhaustive of unfavorable rulings, damages calculations or other limitations which we may or have encountered.

We generate, and expect to generate, a significant portion of our revenue by collecting on settlements and/or judgments that are granted by courts in lawsuits filed against insurers, tortfeasors, and other liable parties. A decrease in the willingness of courts to grant these judgments, a change in the requirements for filing these cases or obtaining these judgments, or a decrease in our ability to collect on these judgments could have an adverse effect on our revenue, operating results, and the financial condition of our business. As we increase our use of the legal channels for collections, our short-term margins may decrease as a result of an increase in upfront court costs and costs related to counterclaims. We may not be able to collect on certain aged Claims because of applicable statutes of limitations, and we may be subject to adverse effects of regulatory changes.

Our recoveries may also be delayed due to inconsistent rulings on different cases which creates delays in our recovery efforts, or court and administrative closing resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. We can be subject to many other unfavorable rulings, damages calculations or limitations which are not listed above. Such unfavorable rulings, damages calculations or other limitations can negatively affect our business and our recovery efforts.

Our litigation often involves complex, novel legal theories with little or no precedent on which courts can rely, which may adversely affect our ability to generate revenue and negatively impact our business.

The lawsuits we file in pursuit of recoveries often involve causes of action that are entirely novel, or novel as applied to the facts alleged in our complaints. For example, while the MSP Law was enacted in 1980, its use by an assignee to pursue recoveries on its own behalf is novel. As such, courts deciding litigated issues in our cases often have limited binding precedent on which to base an opinion, and often review our cases as a first impression. As a result, our cases may be delayed as courts require more time to analyze the legal issues, and outcomes are difficult to accurately predict.

We may employ rarely used causes of action, such as Florida’s equitable pure bill of recovery. LifeWallet has brought numerous pure bill of discovery cases against medical device and drug manufacturers and insurance companies, seeking to identify the proper party defendant or the appropriate theory on which to base relief. As these cases do not seek money damages, success in these cases may lead to information that can used to further pursue recoveries, but not money damages that can be recognized as revenue. These cases, in and of themselves, are an expense to LifeWallet, and may negatively impact our business if, for any reason, they fail to yield actionable results.

Our counterparties likewise often assert defenses that require complex, jurisdiction specific analysis. Litigation of these issues is often time consuming, delaying potential recoveries, and costly. The success of these defenses is difficult to predict and could result in partial or the entire dismissal of a given case, reducing or eliminating potential recoveries, and any associated recognition of revenue.

Our lawsuits are brought in a diverse range of judicial venues across many jurisdictions, which may result in different outcomes on similar issues, adversely affect our recovery efforts, and limit our ability to generate revenue.

Favorable opinions from state and federal appellate courts are binding only in the jurisdiction where the opinion was published. Accordingly, appellate opinions upholding our legal position may be relied on within the issuing jurisdiction but are, at most, persuasive to other courts. Appellate courts can disagree, and we may obtain an unfavorable opinion on similar issues where another appellate court ruled in our favor. As such, we may expend substantial resources pursuing appeals to establish the validity of a legal basis for recovery, which may prove unsuccessful, thus limiting our ability to generate revenue and negatively impact our business.

Counterparties in our lawsuits employ dilatory tactics that delay the resolution of litigation or settlement negotiations, which increases the costs associated with recoveries and substantially delays the outcome of our cases and any associated revenue recognition.

Our counterparties employ strategies to delay proceedings and the ultimate resolution of our cases. Dilatory tactics include, but are not limited to, frivolous court filings, extended and improper discovery objections and disputes, delayed negotiations for data matching protocols, and protracted settlement negotiations that may or may not yield a settlement. While these delays do not adversely affect the value of the underlying assets, and in some case statutory interest continues to accrue, the costs associated with recoveries increase substantially, and our ability to successfully resolve our cases may be limited. As a result, our ability to recognize revenue is delayed and our ultimate recovery may be diminished as a result.

Our fee sharing arrangement with the Law Firm materially reduces our recoveries.

We enter into legal services agreements with the Law Firm and the various entities that hold Claims. The Law Firm is engaged to act as counsel to represent MSP Recovery and each of its subsidiaries and affiliates (or other applicable entity) on a contingency basis as it pertains to the assigned Claims. The Law Firm engages outside litigation counsel from around the U.S. as co-counsel and

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these arrangements are made directly between the Law Firm and other counsel. For the services provided, the Law Firm typically collects a fee equal to 40% of our 50% portion of the Net Proceeds (i.e., 20% of the total Net Proceeds), which is paid from our portion of the Net Proceeds. Co-counsel is paid from the Law Firm’s portion of the Net Proceeds. The Law Firm is also entitled to attorney’s fees that are awarded to the Law Firm pursuant to any fee shifting statute, by agreement, or court award. Any increase in attorneys’ fees and costs would reduce our potential net recoveries. For more information about our fee sharing arrangement, see “Business —Scale of Current Portfolio” and “ —Fee Sharing Arrangements.”

Assignors may pursue recovery on Claims directly or may use recovery agents other than us in connection with the Assignor’s efforts to recover on Claims.

With respect to the Assignors of the assigned Claims, some of our agreements exclude from the assignment of Claims those Claims that are assigned to or being pursued by other recovery vendors of the Assignor at the time of the assignment. We have identified instances where the Assignor did not filter its data provided to us to account for such exclusions. This resulted in some Claims being identified by us for purposes of our recovery estimates. This also has resulted in other recovery agents of the Assignor making collections on Claims that we previously believed were assigned to us. Although we endeavor to seek appropriate clarification from Assignors to properly identify Claims that are being pursued by other recovery vendors, due to the nature and volume of data, it may not be possible to identify with precision all such Claims. While we do not believe that there is any overlap with other recovery vendors with respect to assigned Claims to be material, there can be no assurance as to the ultimate impact on our recoveries or our business.

If lawyers who we rely on to litigate Claims and defenses do not exercise due skill and care, or the interests of their clients do not align with the interests of our Assignors, there may be a material adverse effect on the value of our assets.

We are particularly reliant on lawyers to litigate Claims and defenses with due skill and care. If they are unable or unwilling to do this for any reason, it is likely to have a material adverse effect on the value of our assets. We may have limited experience or no prior dealings with such lawyers and there can be no guarantee that the outcome of a case will be in line with our or the lawyers’ assessment of the case or that such lawyers will perform with the expected skill and care.

Our business and future growth depend on our ability to successfully expand the volume of our healthcare Claims and obtain data from new Assignors and healthcare Claims from our existing Assignor base.

We expect a significant portion of our future revenue growth to come from expanding the volume of Claims we are assigned; this includes obtaining Claims and data from new Assignors as well as our existing Assignors. Our efforts to do so may not be successful. If we are unable to successfully expand the scope of healthcare Claims assigned from potential and existing Assignors, it could have a material adverse effect on our growth and on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The positions we will typically acquire in connection with our acquisition of Claims are unsecured and may be effectively subordinated to other obligations and are at risk to fraud on the part of the Assignor of the Claim.

The types of Claims we invest in are typically unsecured, and therefore will be subordinated to existing or future secured obligations and may be subordinated to other unsecured obligations of the parties against which we seek recoveries. The repayment of these Claims and rights is subject to significant uncertainties. The holders of other obligations may have priority over us to collect amounts due to them and therefore would be entitled to be paid in full before assets would be available for distribution to us.

Further, the possibility of material misrepresentations or omissions on the part of an Assignor, underlying beneficiary or other counterparty (e.g., some Assignors may set out to defraud investors like us). For example, an Assignor may misrepresent the quality, validity or existence of a Claim or other information provided to us. There is no assurance we will detect such fraud and any inaccuracy or incompleteness, if undetected, may adversely affect the valuation of one or more Claims and adversely affect our business and performance. Under certain circumstances, recoveries may be reclaimed if any such payment or distribution is later determined to have been a fraudulent conveyance.

Internal improvements to healthcare Claims and retail billing processes by our Assignors could reduce the need for, and revenue generated by, our solutions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We offer solutions that help our Assignors enhance payment accuracy in an increasingly complex environment, including through our Chase to Pay platform. Over time, our work may increase compliance amongst third-party payers. If such processes continue to improve, demand for our solutions could be reduced. With enough time and investment, many of our Assignors may be able to reduce or resolve recurring payment process complexities and resulting payment inaccuracies. As the skills, experience and resources of such technology, systems and personnel improve, they may be able to identify payment inaccuracies before using our services, which would reduce the payment inaccuracies identified by our solutions and our ability to generate revenue, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Healthcare spending fluctuations, simplification of the healthcare delivery and reimbursement system, programmatic changes to the scope of benefits and limitations to payment integrity initiatives could reduce the need for our data-driven solutions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our solutions improve our Assignors’ ability to accurately pay healthcare Claims and prevent or recover inaccurate payments, which often are a result of complexities in the healthcare Claims payment system. Although the healthcare benefit and payment systems continue to grow in complexity due to factors such as increased regulation and increased healthcare enrollment, the need for and user adoption of our solutions and/or the scope and profitability of the solutions that we provide to our Assignors could be negatively affected by, among other things:

simplification of the U.S. healthcare delivery and reimbursement systems, either through shifts in the commercial healthcare marketplace or through legislative or regulatory changes at the federal or state level;
reductions in the scope of private sector or government healthcare benefits (for example, decisions to eliminate coverage of certain services);
the transition of healthcare beneficiaries from fee-for-service plans to value-based plans;
the adoption of healthcare plans with significantly higher deductibles;
limits placed on payment integrity initiatives, including the Medicare RAC program; and
lower than projected growth in private health insurance or the various Medicare and Medicaid programs, including Medicare Advantage.

Any of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If our existing Assignors prematurely terminate their agreement with us or if either party materially breaches an agreement, and we can no longer receive future assignments of healthcare Claims recoveries, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We expect in the future to derive a significant portion of our revenue from our existing Assignors and, accordingly, we are reliant on ongoing transfer and usage of data, and associated assignments, of Claims from existing Assignors. As a result, maintaining these relationships is critical to our future growth and our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may experience significantly more difficulty than we anticipate in maintaining our existing Assignor agreements. Factors that may affect our ability to continue providing our services under such agreements for our services and our ability to sell additional solutions include:

the price, performance, and functionality of our solutions;
the availability, price, performance, and functionality of competing solutions;
our Assignors’ perceived ability to review Claims accurately using their internal resources;
our ability to develop complementary solutions;
our continued ability to access the data necessary to enable us to effectively develop and deliver new solutions to Assignors;
the stability and security of our platform;
changes in healthcare laws, regulations, or trends; and
the business environment of our Assignors.

Pursuant to the Claims recovery and assignment agreements with our Assignors, the Assignors may choose to discontinue one or more services under an existing contract, may exercise flexibilities within their contracts to adjust service volumes, and may breach or terminate the contract prior to its agreed upon completion date. A material breach by either party to the agreement may also result in the termination of receiving future Claims. Any such occurrences could reduce our revenue from these Assignors. Although a cancellation or termination of a contract does not revoke the original assignment from our Assignors in many instances because such assignment was irrevocable, termination still affects future transfers of data and future assignment of Claims. Accordingly, such cancellations or terminations can constrain our growth and result in a decrease in revenue, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If an Assignor prematurely terminates its agreement with us, we may be precluded from accessing that Assignor’s data and/or be forced to destroy data in our position from that Assignor, which may substantially impair our ability to recover on that Assignor’s Claims.

We enter into Claims Cost Recovery Agreements (“CCRA”) and Business Associate Agreements (“BAA”) with our Assignors. Pursuant to the CCRAs with our Assignors, our Assignors typically agree to provide the Company with historical claims data as well

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as the most updated claims data that the Assignor’s systems can provide and provide ongoing data transfers and agreed upon intervals. If, for any reason, our CCRA with an Assignor is terminated, our BAA with that Assignor requires us to return and/or destroy all Protected Health Information, which may substantially impair our ability to recover on that Assignor’s Claims.

If we are unable to develop new Assignor relationships, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

As part of our strategy, we seek to develop new Assignor relationships, principally among healthcare payers and providers. Our ability to develop new relationships depends on a variety of factors, including the quality and performance of our solutions, as well as the ability to market and sell our solutions effectively and differentiate ourselves from our competitors. We may not be successful in developing new Assignor relationships. If we are unable to develop new Assignor relationships, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

In some events, we may act as a servicing agent for another party. If one of these parties terminates their agreement with us or if either party materially breaches an agreement, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Sometimes, we may provide our services as a servicing agent to third parties. These services include, but are not limited to, identifying, processing, prosecuting and recovering monies related to recoverable Claims. As a servicing agent, we will act as an independent contractor on behalf of a contracting party who owns the rights to certain recoverable Claims. If a party terminates such servicing agreement with us, or if either party is in default of any servicing agreement, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have long sales and implementation cycles for many of our data-driven solutions and may fail to close sales after expending time and resources, or experience delays in implementing the solutions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Potential customers generally perform a thorough evaluation of available payment accuracy solutions and require us to expend time, effort, and money educating them as to the value of our solutions prior to entering into a contract with them. We may expend significant funds and management resources during the sales cycle and ultimately fail to close the sale. Our sales cycle may be extended due to our potential customer’s budgetary constraints or for other reasons. In addition, following a successful sale, the implementation of our systems frequently involves a lengthy process, as we onboard the new customer’s healthcare data into our proprietary systems. If we are unsuccessful in closing sales after expending funds and management resources or if we experience delays in such sales or in implementing our solutions, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If our Assignors’ risk agreements change, it can have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Many of our Assignors are First-Tier entities, as defined in 42 CFR § 422.2. A First-Tier entity is a party that enters into a written arrangement, acceptable to CMS, with an MAO or applicant to provide administrative services or healthcare services for a Medicare eligible individual under the Medicare Advantage program. These entities enter into risk agreements with Downstream Entities, as defined under 42 CFR § 422.2. If these agreements change or include any restrictions on the assignability of Claims, it can have a material adverse effect on our recoveries, business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our use and disclosure of individually identifiable information, including health information, is subject to federal and state privacy and security regulations, and our failure to comply with those regulations or adequately secure the information we hold could result in significant liability or reputational harm.

State and federal laws and regulations, including HIPAA, govern the collection, dissemination, use, disclosure, creation, receipt, maintenance, transmission, privacy, confidentiality, security, availability and integrity of individually identifiable information, including protected health information (“PHI”). HIPAA establishes basic national privacy and security standards for protection of PHI by covered entities such as our Assignors, and the business associates with whom such entities contract for services, including us. As a business associate, we are also directly liable for compliance with HIPAA. In addition to HIPAA, we must adhere to state patient confidentiality and other laws that are not preempted by HIPAA, including those that are more stringent than HIPAA.

In the event of a breach of our obligations under HIPAA or other state laws, we could be subject to enforcement actions by the U.S. Department for Health and Human Services Office for Civil Rights and state regulators and lawsuits, including class action lawsuits, by private plaintiffs. Mandatory penalties for HIPAA violations can be significant and OCR and state regulators may require businesses to enter into settlement or resolution agreements and corrective action plans that impose ongoing compliance requirements. If a person knowingly or intentionally obtains or discloses PHI in violation of HIPAA requirements, criminal penalties may also be imposed. In addition, state Attorneys General are authorized to bring civil actions under HIPAA or relevant state laws. Courts can award damages, costs and attorneys’ fees related to violations of HIPAA or state laws in such cases. While we maintain safeguards that we believe are reasonable and appropriate to protect the privacy and security of PHI and other personally identifiable information consistent with applicable law and our contractual obligations, we cannot provide assurance regarding how these laws, regulations,

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and contracts will be interpreted, enforced or applied to our operations; our systems may be vulnerable to physical break-ins, viruses, hackers, and other potential sources of security breaches or incidents. In addition, we may not be able to prevent incidents of inappropriate use or disclosure or unauthorized access to or acquisition.

We obtain and process a large amount of sensitive data. Our systems and networks may be subject to cyber-security breaches and other disruptions that could compromise our information. Any real or perceived improper use of, disclosure of, or access to such data could harm our reputation as a trusted brand, as well as have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely on information technology networks and systems to process and store electronic information. We collect and store sensitive data, including personally identifiable information of our consumers, on our information technology networks. Despite the implementation of security measures, our information technology networks and systems have been, and in the future may be, vulnerable to disruptions and shutdowns due to attacks by hackers or breaches due to malfeasance by contractors, employees and others who have access to our networks and systems. The occurrence of any of these cyber security events could compromise our networks and the information stored on our networks could be accessed. Any such access could disrupt our operations, adversely affect the willingness of sellers to sell to us or result in legal Claims, liability, reputational damage or regulatory penalties under laws protecting the privacy of personal information, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

In addition, our operations are spread across the United States and Puerto Rico and we rely heavily on technology to communicate internally and efficiently perform our services. We have implemented measures that are designed to mitigate the potential adverse effects of a disruption, relocation or change in operating environment; however, we cannot provide assurance that the situations we plan for and the amount of insurance coverage that we maintain will be adequate in any particular case. In addition, despite system redundancy and security measures, our systems and operations are vulnerable to damage or interruption from, among other sources:

power loss, transmission cable cuts and telecommunications failures;
damage or interruption caused by fire, earthquakes and other natural disasters;
attacks by hackers or nefarious actors;
human error;
computer viruses and other malware or software defects; and
physical break-ins, sabotage, intentional acts of vandalism, terrorist attacks and other events beyond our control.

If we encounter a business interruption, if we fail to effectively maintain our information systems, if it takes longer than we anticipate to complete required upgrades, enhancements or integrations or if our business continuity plans and business interruption insurance do not effectively compensate on a timely basis, we could suffer operational disruptions, disputes with Assignors, civil or criminal penalties, regulatory problems, increases in administrative expenses, loss of our ability to produce timely and accurate financial and other reports or other adverse consequences, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Because of the large amount of data that we collect and manage, it is possible that hardware failures or errors in our systems could result in data loss or corruption or cause the information that we collect to be incomplete or contain inaccuracies that our partners regard as significant. If our data were found to be inaccurate or unreliable due to fraud or other error, or if we, or any of the third-party service providers we engage, were to fail to maintain information systems and data integrity effectively, we could experience operational disruptions that may hinder our ability to provide services, establish appropriate pricing for services, retain and attract Assignors, establish reserves, report financial results timely and accurately and maintain regulatory compliance, among other things. Additionally, as Assignors maintain their own supporting documentation, data and records, it is possible that they may provide us with erroneous or inaccurate data. The occurrence of any of these events could cause our solutions to be perceived as vulnerable, cause our Assignors to lose confidence in our solutions, negatively affect our ability to attract new Assignors and cause existing Assignors to terminate or not renew our solutions. If the information is lost, improperly disclosed or threatened to be disclosed, we could incur significant liability and be subject to regulatory scrutiny and penalties. Furthermore, we could be forced to expend significant resources in response to a security breach, including investigating the cause of the breach, repairing system damage, increasing cyber-security protection costs by deploying additional personnel and protection technologies, notifying and providing credit monitoring to affected individuals, paying regulatory fines and litigating and resolving legal Claims and regulatory actions, all of which could increase our expenses and divert the attention of our management and key personnel away from our business operations.

In addition, if our own confidential business information were improperly disclosed, our business could be materially adversely affected. A core aspect of our business is the reliability and security of our technology platform. Any perceived or actual breach of security could have a significant impact on our reputation as a trusted brand, cause us to lose existing Assignors, prevent us from

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obtaining new Assignors, require us to expend significant funds to remedy problems caused by breaches and to implement measures to prevent further breaches and expose us to legal risk and potential liability. Any security breach at a third-party vendor providing services to us could have similar effects. Any breach or disruption of any systems or networks on which we rely could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our information technology strategy and execution are critical to our continued success. We expect to continue to invest in long-term solutions that will enable us to continue being a differentiator in the market and to protect against cybersecurity risks and threats. Our success is dependent, in large part, on maintaining the effectiveness of existing technology systems and continuing to deliver and enhance technology systems that support our business processes in a cost-efficient and resource-efficient manner. Increasing regulatory and legislative changes will place additional demands on our information technology infrastructure that could have a direct impact on resources available for other projects tied to our strategic initiatives. In addition, recent trends toward greater patient engagement in health care require new and enhanced technologies, including more sophisticated applications for mobile devices. Connectivity among technologies is becoming increasingly important. We must also develop new systems to meet current market standards and keep pace with continuing changes in information processing technology, evolving industry and regulatory standards and patient needs. Failure to do so may present compliance challenges and impede our ability to deliver services in a competitive manner. Further, because system development projects are long-term in nature, they may be more costly than expected to complete and may not deliver the expected benefits upon completion. Our failure to effectively invest in, implement improvements to and properly maintain the uninterrupted operation and data integrity of our information technology and other business systems could adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flow.

If we fail to innovate and develop new solutions, or if these new solutions are not adopted by existing and potential Assignors or other users, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our results of operations and continued growth will depend on our ability to successfully develop and market new solutions that our existing and potential Assignors or other users are willing to adopt. For example, as part of our “Chase to Pay” model, we launched LifeWallet in January 2022, a platform designed to organize and facilitate access to users’ medical records. We cannot provide assurance that our new or modified solutions will be responsive to Assignor or users preferences or industry changes, or that the product and service development initiatives we prioritize will yield the gains that we anticipate, if any.

If we are unable to predict market preferences or if our industry changes, or if we are unable to modify our solutions on a timely basis, we may lose Assignors or fail to attract new ones. If existing Assignors are not willing to adopt new solutions, or if potential Assignors or other users do not value such new solutions, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We expect to make substantial investments in and changes to our operational platforms, systems and applications to compete effectively and keep up with technological advances. We may also face difficulties in integrating any upgraded platforms into our current technology infrastructure. In addition, significant technological changes could render our existing solutions obsolete. Although we have invested, and will continue to invest, significant resources in developing and enhancing our solutions and platforms, any failure to keep up with technological advances or to integrate upgraded operational platforms and solutions into our existing technology infrastructure could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


 

Certain of our activities present the potential for identity theft or similar illegal behavior by our employees or contractors with respect to third parties, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our solutions involve the use and disclosure of personal information that in some cases could be used to impersonate third parties or otherwise improperly gain access to their data or funds.

If any of our employees or contractors take, convert, or misuse such information, or we experience a data breach creating a risk of identity theft, we could be liable for damages and our business reputation could be damaged. In addition, we could be perceived to have facilitated or participated in illegal misappropriation of documents or data and, therefore, be subject to civil or criminal liability. In addition, federal and state regulators may take the position that a data breach or misdirection of data constitutes an unfair or deceptive act or trade practice. We also may be required to notify individuals affected by any data breaches. Further, a data breach or similar incident could impact the ability of our Assignors that are creditors to comply with the federal “red flags” rules, which require the implementation of identity theft prevention programs to detect, prevent and mitigate identity theft in connection with Assignor accounts, which could be costly. If data utilized in our solutions are misappropriated for the purposes of identity theft or similar illegal behavior, it could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to comply with applicable privacy, security and data laws, regulations and standards, including with respect to third-party service providers that utilize sensitive personal information on our behalf, it could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have Assignors throughout the United States and our solutions may contain healthcare information of patients located across all 50 states and Puerto Rico. Therefore, we may be subject to the privacy laws of each such jurisdiction, which may vary and, in some cases, can impose more restrictive requirements than federal law. Where state laws are more protective, we have to comply with the

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stricter provisions. In addition to fines and penalties imposed upon violators, some of these state laws also afford private rights of action to individuals who believe their personal information has been misused. California’s patient privacy laws, for example, provide for penalties of up to $250,000 and permit injured parties to sue for damages. The interplay of federal and state laws may be subject to varying interpretations by courts and government agencies, creating complex compliance issues for us and our Assignors and potentially exposing us to additional expense, adverse publicity and liability. Further, as regulatory focus on privacy issues continues to increase and laws and regulations concerning the protection of personal information expand and become more complex, these potential risks to our business could intensify. Changes in laws or regulations associated with the enhanced protection of certain types of sensitive data, such as PHI or PII, along with increased customer demands for enhanced data security infrastructure, could greatly increase our cost of providing our services, decrease demand for our services, reduce our revenue and/or subject us to additional liabilities.

The following legal and regulatory developments also could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations:

amendment, enactment, or interpretation of laws and regulations that restrict the access and use of personal information and reduce the supply of data available to Assignors;
changes in cultural and consumer attitudes to favor further restrictions on information collection and sharing, which may lead to regulations that prevent full utilization of our solutions;
failure of our solutions to comply with current laws and regulations; and
failure of our solutions to adapt to changes in the regulatory environment in an efficient, cost-effective manner.

Changes in the United States healthcare environment, or in laws relating to healthcare programs and policies, and steps we take in anticipation of such changes or a failure to comply with such laws, particularly as they relate to the Affordable Care Act and Medicare and Medicaid programs, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Approximately 93% of our expected recoveries arise from Claims being brought under the Medicare Secondary Payer Act private cause of action (Section 1862(b)(3)(A) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. § 1395y(b)(3)(A)). This law allows us to pursue recoveries against primary payers for reimbursement of medical expenses that our Assignors paid for when primary payers (i.e., liability insurers) were responsible for payment. While we believe we have been successful at both the federal and state level in establishing a legal basis for our recoveries, changes to the laws on which we base our recoveries, particularly the Medicare Secondary Payer Act, can adversely affect our business.

For example, on May 16, 2023, Senators Tim Scott (R-SC) and Maggie Hassan (D-NH) and Representatives Brad Schneider (D-IL) and Gus Bilirakis (R-FL) introduced the Repair Abuses of MSP Payments Act (S.1607/H.R.3388) (the “RAMP Act”) in the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives, respectively, seeking to amend the private cause of action under the Medicare Secondary Payer Act, by striking “primary plan” and inserting “group health plan” (as defined in paragraph 42 U.S.C. § 1395y(b)(1)(A)(v)).

The Medicare Secondary Payer Act’s private cause of action—a fundamental component of how the Company is able to calculate damages—incentivizes private parties, such as MSP Recovery, to pursue reimbursement of conditional payments by rewarding them with double damages. If the Medicare Secondary Payer Act is changed, or if the RAMP Act were enacted to apply retroactively, it could significantly reduce the Company's potential recoveries and have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The healthcare industry in the United States is subject to a multitude of changing political, economic and regulatory influences that affect every aspect of our healthcare system. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act (the “Affordable Care Act”), made major changes in how healthcare is delivered and reimbursed, and generally increased access to health insurance benefits to the uninsured and underinsured population of the United States. Among other things, the Affordable Care Act increased the number of individuals with Medicaid and private insurance coverage, implemented reimbursement policies that tie payment to quality, facilitated the creation of accountable care organizations that may use capitation and other alternative payment methodologies, strengthened enforcement of fraud and abuse laws and encouraged the use of information technology. However, many of these changes require implementing regulations that have not yet been drafted or have been released only as proposed rules. In addition, there have been and continue to be a number of legislative and regulatory initiatives to contain healthcare costs, reduce federal and state government spending on healthcare products and services and limit or restrict the scope of the Medicare RAC program and other program integrity initiatives.

Future changes to the Affordable Care Act and to the Medicare and Medicaid programs and other federal or state healthcare reform measures may lower reimbursement rates, establish new payment models, increase or decrease government involvement in healthcare, decrease the Medicare RAC program and otherwise change the operating environment for us and our Assignors. If efforts to waive, modify or otherwise change the Affordable Care Act, in whole or in part, are successful, if we are unable to adapt our solutions to meet changing requirements or expand service delivery into new areas, or the demand for our solutions is reduced as a

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result of healthcare organizations’ reactions to changed circumstances and financial pressures, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Healthcare organizations may react to such changed circumstances and financial pressures, including those surrounding the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, by taking actions such as curtailing or deferring their retention of service providers, which could reduce the demand for our data driven solutions and, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

A significant portion of our Claims comes from a limited number of Assignors who have relationships with key existing payers, and the loss of one or more of these Assignors or disruptions in Assignor-payer relationships could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have acquired a significant portion of our Claims from and entered into agreements for new services with a limited number of large Assignors. These Assignors assign these Claims with an irrevocable assignment from the Assignor to us each with different and/or staggered terms. In addition, we also rely on our reputation and recommendations from key Assignors to promote our solutions to potential new Assignors.

Further, our ability to pursue a significant portion of our Claims depends on our arrangements pursuant to which we are granted access to health care data, which may be terminated upon the occurrence of certain events. See “- We use various data sources in our business and if we lose access to those data sources it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.” Accordingly, if any of these Assignors fail to renew or terminate their existing agreements with us, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our revenues and operations are dependent upon a limited number of key existing payers and our Assignors’ continued relationship with those payers, and disruptions in those relationships (including renegotiation, non-renewal or termination of capitation agreements) or the inability of such payers to maintain their contracts with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, or CMS, could adversely affect our business.

Our operations are dependent on a concentrated number of payers with whom our Assignors contract to provide services. The loss of these contracts for our Assignors could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. The sudden loss of any of our Assignors’ payer partners or the renegotiation of any of our Assignors’ payer contracts could adversely affect our operating results.

Moreover, our inability to maintain agreements with our Assignors with respect to their health care Claims recovery rights and data or to negotiate favorable terms for those agreements in the future could result in the loss of revenue and could have a material adverse effect on our profitability and business.

The data healthcare analytics and healthcare payment markets are relatively new and unpenetrated, and may not develop, develop more slowly than we expect, or sustain negative publicity which may adversely affect our business.

The data healthcare analytics and healthcare payment accuracy markets are relatively new and the overall market opportunity remains relatively unpenetrated. It is uncertain whether this market will achieve and sustain high levels of demand, client acceptance and market adoption. Our success will depend to a substantial extent on the willingness of our Assignors to use, and to increase the frequency and extent of their utilization of our solutions, as well as on our ability to demonstrate the value of data-driven solutions and payment accuracy solutions to healthcare payers and government agencies. If our Assignors or other potential customers do not perceive the benefits of our data-driven solutions, then our market may not continue to develop, or it may develop more slowly than we expect. If any of these events occurs, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Negative publicity concerning the data healthcare analytics and healthcare payment accuracy industry or patient confidentiality and privacy could limit the future growth of the healthcare payment accuracy market.

Our data-driven solutions help prevent and recover improper payments made to healthcare providers. As a result, healthcare providers, insurers, third-party payers and others have criticized the healthcare payment accuracy industry and have hired lobbyists to discredit the reported success that payment accuracy solutions have had in improving the accuracy of payments. Further, negative publicity regarding patient confidentiality and privacy could limit market acceptance of our healthcare solutions. Many consumer advocates, privacy advocates and government regulators believe that the existing laws and regulations do not adequately protect privacy. They have become increasingly concerned with the use of personal information. As a result, they are lobbying for further restrictions on the dissemination or commercial use of personal information to the public and private sectors. If healthcare providers, privacy advocates and others are successful in creating negative publicity for the healthcare payment accuracy industry, government and private healthcare payers could hesitate to contract with payment accuracy providers, such as us, which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We face significant competition, and we expect competition to increase.

Competition among providers of healthcare payment accuracy solutions to U.S. healthcare insurance companies is strong and we may encounter additional competition as new competitors enter this area.

Our current healthcare solutions competitors include:

other payment accuracy vendors, including vendors focused on discrete aspects of the healthcare payment accuracy process;
fraud, waste, and abuse Claim edit and predictive analysis companies;
primary Claims processors;
numerous regional utilization management companies;
in-house payment accuracy capabilities;
Medicare RACs; and
Healthcare consulting firms and other third-party liability service providers.

We may not be able to compete successfully against existing or new competitors. In addition, we may be forced to increase the consideration we provide for assigned Claims or lower our pricing, or the demand for our data-driven solutions may decrease as a result of increased competition. Further, a failure to be responsive to our existing and potential Assignors’ needs could hinder our ability to maintain or expand our Assignor base, hire and retain new employees, pursue new business opportunities, complete future acquisitions and operate our business effectively. Any inability to compete effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we are unable to protect our proprietary technology, information, processes and know-how, the value of our solutions may be diminished, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely significantly on proprietary technology, information, processes and know-how that are not subject to patent or copyright protection. We seek to protect this information through trade secret or confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, subcontractors or other parties, as well as through other security measures. These agreements and security measures may be inadequate to deter misappropriation of intellectual property and may be insufficient to protect our proprietary information. Misappropriation of our intellectual property by third parties, or any disclosure or dissemination of our business intelligence, queries, Algorithms and other similar information by any means, could undermine competitive advantages we currently derive or may derive therefrom. Any of these situations could result in our expending significant time and incurring expense to enforce our intellectual property rights. Although we have taken measures to protect our proprietary rights, others may compete with our business by offering solutions or services that are substantially similar to ours. If the protection of our proprietary rights is inadequate to prevent unauthorized use or appropriation by third parties or our employees, the value of our solutions, brand and other intangible assets may be diminished and competitors may be able to more effectively offer solutions that have the same or similar functionality as our solutions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our success depends on our ability to protect our intellectual property rights.

Our success depends in part on our ability to protect our proprietary software, confidential information and know-how, technology and other intellectual property and intellectual property rights. To do so, we rely generally on copyright, trademark and trade secret laws, confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with employees and third parties, and license and other agreements with consultants, vendors and Assignors. There can be no assurance that employees, consultants, vendors and Assignors have executed such agreements or have not breached or will not breach their agreements with us, that we will have adequate remedies for any breach, or that our trade secrets will not otherwise become known or independently developed by competitors. Additionally, we monitor our use of open-source software to avoid uses that would require us to disclose our proprietary source code or violate applicable open source licenses, but if we engaged in such uses inadvertently, we could be required to take remedial action or release certain of our proprietary source code. These scenarios could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, despite the protections we place on our intellectual property, a third party could, without authorization, copy or otherwise obtain and use our products or technology, or develop similar technology. In addition, agreement terms that address non-competition are difficult to enforce in many jurisdictions and might not be enforceable in certain cases.

As we begin to pursue patents, we might not be able to obtain meaningful patent protection for our technology. In addition, if any patents are issued in the future, they might not provide us with any competitive advantages or might be successfully challenged by third parties.

We rely on unpatented proprietary technology. It is possible that others will independently develop the same or similar technology or otherwise obtain access to our unpatented technology. To protect our trade secrets and other proprietary information, we require employees, consultants, advisors and collaborators to enter into confidentiality agreements. We cannot assure you that these

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agreements will provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets, know-how, or other proprietary information in the event of any unauthorized use, misappropriation, or disclosure of such trade secrets, know-how, or other proprietary information. Further, the theft or unauthorized use or publication of our trade secrets and other confidential business information could reduce the differentiation of our services and harm our business, and the value of our investment in development or business acquisitions could be reduced and third parties might make claims against us related to losses of their confidential or proprietary information.

We rely on our trademarks, service marks, trade names and brand names to distinguish our services from the services of our competitors and have registered or applied to register many of these trademarks. We cannot assure you that our trademark applications will be approved. Third parties may also oppose our trademark applications or otherwise challenge our use of the trademarks. In the event that our trademarks are successfully challenged, we could be forced to rebrand our services, which could result in loss of brand recognition and could require us to devote resources advertising and marketing new brands. Further, we cannot assure you that competitors will not infringe our trademarks or that we will have adequate resources to enforce our trademarks. Additionally, if we expand our focus to the international payment accuracy market, there is no guarantee that our trademarks, service marks, trade names and brand names will be adequately protected.

Our ability to obtain, protect, and enforce our intellectual property rights is subject to uncertainty as to the scope of protection, registrability, patentability, validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights in each applicable jurisdiction, as well as the risk of general litigation or third-party oppositions.

Existing U.S. federal and state intellectual property laws offer only limited protection. Moreover, if we expand our business into markets outside of the United States, our intellectual property rights may not receive the same degree of protection as they would in the United States because of the differences in foreign trademark and other laws concerning proprietary rights. Governments may adopt regulations, and government agencies or courts may render decisions, requiring compulsory licensing of intellectual property rights. When we seek to enforce our intellectual property rights, we may be subject to claims that the intellectual property rights are invalid or unenforceable. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights and to protect our trade secrets. Litigation brought to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could be costly, time consuming and distracting to management and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property rights. Furthermore, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights. Our inability to protect our proprietary technology against unauthorized copying or use, as well as any costly litigation or diversion of our management’s attention and resources, could delay further sales or the implementation of our solutions, impair the functionality of our solutions, delay introductions of new solutions, result in our substituting inferior or more costly technologies into our solutions, or have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our qui tam litigation may be subject to Government Intervention and Dismissal pursuant to 31 U.S.C. § 3730(c)(2)(A).

We file qui tam (“whistleblower”) actions on behalf of the United States government (“Federal Government”) under the False Claims Act, 31 U.S.C. § 3729 et seq. These actions give the Federal Government the opportunity to intervene and participate in the action. The False Claims Act authorizes the Attorney General to dismiss a qui tam action over the relator’s objection. The action can be dismissed if the Federal Government determines their best interests are not served with the litigation. This can be the case if the litigation does not advance their interests, preserve their limited resources or avoid adverse precedent.

The Federal Government may dismiss an action notwithstanding the objections of the relator if the relator has received notice from the Federal Government and the person is afforded an opportunity to be heard on the Federal Government’s motion to dismiss. Courts have stated that the Federal Government has an “unfettered” right to dismiss a qui tam action. Swift v. United States, 318 F.3d 250, 252 (D.C. Cir. 2003). Federal Government intervention as well as dismissal pursuant to 31 U.S.C. § 3730(c)(2)(A), can negatively affect our business and our recovery efforts.

We are subject to extensive government regulation. Any violation of the laws and regulations applicable to us or a negative audit or investigation finding could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Much of our business is regulated by the Federal Government and the states in which we operate. The laws and regulations governing our operations generally are intended to benefit and protect individual citizens, including government program beneficiaries, health plan members and providers, rather than stockholders. The government agencies administering these laws and regulations have broad latitude to enforce them. These laws and regulations regulate how we do business, what services we offer and how we interact with our Assignors, providers, other healthcare payers and the public. Increased involvement by us in analytic or audit work that can have an impact on the eligibility of individuals for medical coverage or specific benefits could increase the likelihood and incidence of us being subjected to scrutiny or legal actions by parties other than our Assignors, based on alleged mistakes or deficiencies in our work, with significant resulting costs and strain on our resources.

In addition, because we may receive payments from federal and state governmental agencies, we may become subject to various laws, including the Federal False Claims Act and similar state statutes, which permit government law enforcement agencies to institute suits against us for violations and, in some cases, to seek double or treble damages, penalties and assessments. In addition, private

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citizens, acting as whistleblowers, can sue on behalf of the Federal Government under the “qui tam” provisions of the Federal False Claims Act and similar statutory provisions in many states.

The expansion of our operations into new products and services may further expose us to requirements and potential liabilities under additional statutes and legislative schemes that previously have not been relevant to our business, such as banking statutes, that may both increase demands on our resources for compliance activities and subject us to potential penalties for noncompliance with statutory and regulatory standards.

If the government discovers improper or illegal activities in the course of audits or investigations, we may be subject to various civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, which may include termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspensions and debarment from doing business with the government. Such risks, particularly under the Federal False Claims Act and similar state fraud statutes, have increased in recent years due to legislative changes that have (among other amendments) expanded the definition of a false claim to include, potentially, any unreimbursed overpayment received from, or other monetary debt owed to, a government agency. If we are found to be in violation of any applicable law or regulation, or if we receive an adverse review, audit or investigation, any resulting negative publicity, penalties or sanctions could have an adverse effect on our reputation in the industry, impair our ability to compete for new contracts and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are also subject to laws, regulations and rules enacted by national, regional and local governments and Nasdaq. In particular, we are required to comply with certain SEC, Nasdaq and other legal or regulatory requirements. Compliance with, and monitoring of, applicable laws, regulations and rules may be difficult, time-consuming and costly. Those laws, regulations or rules and their interpretation and application may also change from time to time and those changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, investments and results of operations. In addition, a failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations or rules, as interpreted and applied, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Our business depends on effective information processing systems that are compliant with current HIPAA transaction and code set standards and the integrity of the data in, and operations of, our information systems, as well as those of other entities that provide us with data or receive data from us.

Our ability to conduct our operations and accurately report our financial results depends on the integrity of the data in our information systems and the integrity of the processes performed by those systems. These information systems and applications require continual maintenance, upgrading and enhancement to meet our operational needs, satisfy Assignor requests and handle and enable our expansion and growth. Despite our testing and quality control measures, we cannot be certain that errors or system deficiencies will not be found, and that remediation can be done in a timeframe that is acceptable to our Assignors or that Assignor relationships will not be impaired by the occurrence of errors or the need for remediation. In addition, implementation of upgrades and enhancements may cost more, take longer or require more testing than originally expected. Given the large amount of data we collect and manage, it is possible that hardware failures, errors or technical deficiencies in our systems could result in data loss or corruption or cause the information that we collect, utilize or disseminate to be incomplete or contain inaccuracies that our Assignors regard as significant.

Moreover, because we submit high volumes of monetary Claims to third parties, the efficiency and effectiveness of our own operations are to some degree dependent on the Claims processing systems of these third parties and their compliance with any new transaction and code set standards. Since October 1, 2015, health plans, commercial payers and healthcare providers have been required to transition to the new ICD-10 coding system, which greatly expands the number and detail of diagnosis codes used for inpatient, outpatient and physician Claims. The transition to the new transaction and code set standard is expensive, time-consuming and may initially result in disruptions or delays as we and other stakeholders make necessary system adjustments to be fully compliant and capable of exchanging data.

In addition, we may experience delays in processing Claims and therefore earning our fees if the third parties with whom we work are not in full compliance with these new standards in the required timeframe. Claims processing systems failures, incapacities or deficiencies internal to these third parties could significantly delay or obstruct our ability to recover money, and thereby interfere with our performance and our ability to generate revenue in the timeframe we anticipate, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In the event we fail to maintain our Security Organization Control 2, HITRUST or other certifications, we could be in breach of our obligations under our contracts; fines and other penalties could result, we may suffer reputational harm, and our business could be damaged, limiting our ability to generate revenue.

In addition to government regulations and securities laws, we are subject to self-regulatory standards and industry certifications that may legally or contractually apply to us. These include Security Organization Control 2 (“SOC 2”), with which we are currently compliant. In the event we fail to maintain our SOC 2 compliance or fail to receive recertification from HITRUST, we could be in breach of our obligations under Assignor and other contracts, fines, and other penalties could result, and we may suffer reputational harm and damage to our business. Further, our Assignors may expect us to comply with more stringent privacy and data security

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requirements than those imposed by laws, regulations, or self-regulatory requirements, and we may be obligated contractually to comply with additional or different standards relating to our handling or protection of data.

Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with federal or state laws or regulations, industry standards or other legal obligations, or any actual or suspected privacy or security incident, whether or not resulting in unauthorized access to, or acquisition, release or transfer of personally identifiable information ("PII") or other data, may result in governmental enforcement actions and prosecutions, private litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity and could cause our Assignors to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business. We may be unable to make such changes and modifications in a commercially reasonable manner or at all, and our ability to pursue recoveries could be limited. Any of these developments could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Privacy and data security concerns, whether valid or invalid, may inhibit retention of our systems by existing Assignors or onboarding onto or, in the case of our Chase to Pay services, adoption of our systems by new Assignors. For more information on Chase to Pay services, please see the section entitled “Business - Chase to Pay.”

Costs associated with, and our ability to obtain and maintain adequate insurance, could adversely affect our profitability and financial condition.

We hold a number of insurance policies, including directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, business interruption insurance, property insurance and workers’ compensation insurance. If the costs of maintaining adequate insurance coverage should increase significantly in the future, our operating results could be materially adversely affected. Likewise, if any of our current insurance coverage should become unavailable to us or become economically impractical, we would be required to operate our business without indemnity from commercial insurance providers. Similarly, if we exhaust our current insurance coverage for any given policy period, we would be required to operate our business without indemnity from commercial insurance providers for any Claims made that are attributable to that policy period.

Our services could become subject to new, revised or enhanced regulatory requirements in the future, which could result in increased costs, could delay or prevent our introduction of new solutions, or could impair the function or value of our existing solutions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The healthcare industry is highly regulated at the federal, state and local levels, and is subject to changing legislative, regulatory, political and other influences. As has been the trend in recent years, it is reasonable to assume that there will continue to be increased government oversight and regulation of the healthcare industry in the future. Changes to existing laws and regulations, or the enactment of new federal and state laws and regulations affecting the healthcare industry, could create unexpected liabilities for us, could cause us or our Assignors to incur additional costs and could restrict our or our Assignors’ operations. Many healthcare laws are complex, subject to frequent change and dependent on interpretation and enforcement decisions from government agencies with broad discretion. We cannot assure our stockholders as to the ultimate content, timing or effect of any new healthcare legislation or regulations, nor is it possible at this time to estimate the impact of potential new legislation or regulations on our business. In addition, federal and state legislatures periodically have considered programs to reform or amend the U.S. healthcare system at both the federal and state level, such as the enactment of the Affordable Care Act. It is possible that the changes to the Medicare, Medicaid or other governmental healthcare program reimbursements may serve as precedent to possible changes in other payers’ reimbursement policies in a manner adverse to us. Similarly, changes in private payer reimbursements could lead to adverse changes in Medicare, Medicaid and other governmental healthcare programs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our failure to anticipate accurately the application of these laws and similar or future laws and regulations, or our failure to comply with them, could create liability for us, result in adverse publicity and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

While we believe that we have structured our agreements and operations in material compliance with applicable healthcare laws and regulations, there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully address changes in the current regulatory environment. We believe that our business operations materially comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations. However, some of the healthcare laws and regulations applicable to us are subject to limited or evolving interpretations, and a review of our business or operations by a court, law enforcement, or a regulatory authority might result in a determination that could have a material adverse effect on us. Furthermore, the healthcare laws and regulations applicable to us may be amended or interpreted in a manner that could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.

Our services may become subject to new or enhanced regulatory requirements and we may be required to change or adapt our services in order to comply with these regulations. If we fail to successfully implement a new regulatory framework, it could adversely affect our ability to offer services deemed critical by our Assignors, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. New or enhanced regulatory requirements may render our solutions obsolete or prevent us from performing certain services. Further, new or enhanced regulatory requirements could impose additional costs on us, thereby making existing solutions unprofitable, and could make the introduction of new solutions more costly or time consuming than we anticipate, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Failing to accurately estimate our contract pricing may have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our Assignor contracts are generally recovery-based. We receive a fee for such contracts based on the monies identified and ultimately recovered. Our ability to earn a profit on a performance-based agreement requires that we accurately estimate the costs involved and outcomes likely to be achieved and assess the probability of completing multiple tasks and transactions within the contracted time period.

We derive a relatively small portion of our revenue on a “fee-for-service” basis whereby billing is based upon a flat fee or a fee per hour. To earn a profit on these contracts, we must accurately estimate costs involved and assess the probability of achieving certain milestones within the contracted time period. If we do not accurately estimate the costs and timing for completing projects, or if we encounter increased or unexpected costs, delays, failures, liabilities, or risks, including those outside of our control, our contracts could prove unprofitable for us or yield lower profit margins than anticipated. Although we believe that we have recorded adequate provisions in our financial statements for losses on our fee-for-service contracts where applicable, as required under GAAP, we cannot provide assurance that our contract provisions will be adequate to cover all actual future losses. The inability to accurately estimate the factors upon which we base our contract pricing could have a material adverse effect on business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to cost-effectively develop widespread brand awareness and maintain our reputation, or if we fail to achieve and maintain market acceptance, our business could suffer.

We believe that maintaining and enhancing our reputation and brand recognition is critical to our relationships with our Assignors and ability to attract new Assignors. The promotion of our brand may require us to make substantial investments and we anticipate that, as our market becomes increasingly competitive, these marketing initiatives may become increasingly difficult and expensive. Our marketing activities may not be successful or yield increased revenue and to the extent that these activities yield increased revenue, the increased revenue may not offset the expenses we incur and our results of operations could be harmed. In addition, any factor that diminishes our reputation or that of our management, including failing to meet expectations, or any adverse publicity or litigation involving or surrounding us, could make it substantially more difficult for us to attract new Assignors. In addition, negative publicity resulting from any adverse government audit could injure our reputation. If we do not successfully maintain and enhance our reputation and brand recognition, our business may not grow and we could lose our relationships with Assignors, which would harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names that we own or license may be challenged, infringed, circumvented, declared generic, lapsed or determined to be infringing on or dilutive of other marks. We may not be able to protect our rights in these trademarks and trade names, which we need in order to build name recognition with Assignors, payers and other partners. In addition, third parties may in the future file for registration of trademarks similar or identical to our trademarks. If they succeed in registering or developing common law rights in such trademarks, and if we are not successful in challenging such third-party rights, we may not be able to use these trademarks to promote our business in certain relevant jurisdictions. If we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, we may not be able to compete effectively and our brand recognition, reputation and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Our ability to execute on business plans, maintain high levels of service, or adequately address competitive challenges will be negatively impacted if we fail to properly manage our growth, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In recent years, our size and the scope of our business operations have expanded rapidly, and we expect that we will continue to grow and expand into new areas within the healthcare industry; however, such growth and expansion has resulted in nominal revenue to date and carries costs and risks that, if not properly managed, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. To effectively manage our business plans, we must continue to improve our operations, while remaining competitive. We must also be flexible and responsive to our Assignors’ needs and to changes in the political, economic and regulatory environment in which we operate. The greater size and complexity of our expanding business puts additional strain on our administrative, operational and financial resources and makes the determination of optimal resource allocation more difficult. A failure to anticipate or properly address the demands that our growth and diversification may have on our resources and existing infrastructure may result in unanticipated costs and inefficiencies and could adversely impact our ability to execute on our business plans and growth goals, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may require significant capital expenditures and the allocation of valuable management resources to grow and change in these areas. We must effectively increase our headcount and continue to effectively train and manage our employees. We will need to continue to hire, train and manage additional qualified information technology, operations and marketing staff, and improve and maintain our technology and information systems to properly manage our growth. If our new hires perform poorly, or if we are unsuccessful in hiring, training, managing and integrating these new employees, or if we are not successful in retaining our existing employees, our business may be adversely affected. We will be unable to manage our business effectively if we are unable to alleviate the strain on resources caused by growth in a timely and successful manner. If we fail to effectively manage our anticipated growth and change, the quality of our services may suffer, which could negatively affect our brand and reputation and harm our ability to attract and retain Assignors and employees.

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We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries, including increasing expenses as we continue to grow our business. We expect our operating expenses to increase significantly over the next several years as we continue to hire additional personnel, expand our operations and infrastructure, and continue to expand to reach more Assignors. In addition to the expected costs to grow our business, we also expect to incur additional legal, accounting, investor relations and other expenses as a newly public company. These investments may be more costly than we expect, and if we do not achieve the benefits anticipated from these investments, or if the realization of these benefits is delayed, they may not result in increased revenue or growth in our business. If our growth rate were to decline significantly or become negative, it could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. If we are not able to achieve or maintain positive cash flow in the long term, we may require additional financing, which may not be available on favorable terms or at all and/or which could be dilutive to our stockholders. Our failure to achieve or maintain profitability could negatively impact the value of our common stock.

We may require additional financing to fund our operations or growth. The failure to secure additional financing on acceptable terms and conditions or at all could have a material adverse effect on our continued development or growth. Our access to, and the availability of, financing will be impacted by many factors, including, but not limited to, our financial performance, our credit ratings, our then current level of indebtedness, the liquidity of the overall capital markets and the state of the U.S. and global economy. None of our officers, directors or stockholders will be obligated to provide any financing to us.

We may not be able to obtain additional capital to continue the development of our business.

There can be no assurance that our future proposed operations and Claims recovery will be implemented successfully or that we will ever have profits. If we are unable to successfully recover on Claims and continue pursuing recoveries, holders of our common stock may lose their entire investment. We face all of the risks inherent in a new business and a new public company, including the expenses, difficulties, complications and delays frequently encountered in connection with conducting operations, including the need for significant additional capital requirements and management’s potential underestimation of initial and ongoing costs. In evaluating our business and future prospects, these difficulties should be considered. If we are not effective in addressing these risks, we would not be able to implement our business strategy and our results of operations would be adversely affected. To date, the Company’s sources of liquidity to fund working capital have been through funds from servicing agreements, member contributions and investments from other third parties. Our ability to obtain necessary financing may be impaired by factors such as the health of and access to capital markets, our limited track record, or a future doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

Failure to properly manage our growth or obtain additional financing to fund growth could negatively impact our business.

In order to implement our business plan and achieve and favorable results, we expect to expand our business operations and hire additional sales and support personnel. We may not have sufficient resources to do so. If we hire additional personnel and invest in additional infrastructure, we may not be effective in expanding our operations and our systems, procedures or controls may not be adequate to support any such expansion. Failure to properly manage our growth could have a material adverse effect on our business and our operating results. Failure to obtain financing, or obtain financing on favorable terms, could have a material adverse effect on future operating prospects, could require us to significantly reduce operations, and could result in a decrease in our stock price.

We may make acquisitions of businesses or Claim recovery interests that prove unsuccessful, and any mergers, acquisitions, dispositions or joint venture activities may change our business and financial results and introduce new risks.

From time to time, we may make acquisitions of, or otherwise invest in, other companies that could complement our business, including the acquisition of entities in diverse geographic regions and entities offering greater access to businesses and markets that we do not currently serve. The acquisitions we make may be unprofitable or may take some time to achieve profitability. In addition, we may not successfully operate the businesses that we acquire, or may not successfully integrate these businesses with our own, which may result in our inability to maintain our goals, objectives, standards, controls, policies, culture, or profitability. Through acquisitions, we may enter markets in which we have limited or no experience. Any acquisition may result in a potentially dilutive issuance of equity securities, and the incurrence of additional debt which could reduce our profitability. We also pursue dispositions and joint ventures from time to time. Any such transactions could change our business lines, geographic reach, financial results or capital structure. Our company could be larger or smaller after any such transactions and may have a different investment profile.

We may also invest in certain Claim recovery interests, as well as assignor interests in Claims with the intent to expand our portfolio of recoverable Claims and add to our potential revenue streams by selling these Claims at a higher rate than that paid by the Company. These purchases may prove unprofitable or may take some time to achieve profitability. These purchases may also adversely affect our liquidity and cash positions if we use our cash in order to purchase new Claims, or if we finance such purchase with debt that we are ultimately not able to repay. If we do not realize the anticipated benefits of any such acquisition, it would have a material effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We have a substantial amount of indebtedness and payment obligations, and together with any future indebtedness or payment obligations, could adversely affect our ability to operate our business.

We have substantial amounts of indebtedness and payment obligations and we may incur substantial additional indebtedness or payment obligations in order to finance acquisitions of additional Claims assets or otherwise in connection with financing our operations, and such increased leverage could adversely affect our business.

For example, on March 29, 2023, we entered into a membership interest purchase agreement with Hazel Holdings I LLC (together with its affiliates, "Hazel"), which was funded partially by a purchase money loan between Hazel, as lender, and the Company, as borrower, in the amount of $250 million, which has increased our indebtedness and obligation to pay interest, and an Amended and Restated Credit Agreement with affiliates of Hazel with respect to an aggregate $80 million loan credit facility, which has also increased our indebtedness and obligations to pay interest. In addition, pursuant to the Master Transaction Agreement, dated March 9, 2022 (as amended, the "Virage MTA"), we have payment obligations to Virage in the amount of $825.0 million as of March 31, 2023.

The terms of any of our existing or future indebtedness or payment obligations may restrict or otherwise negatively impact our ability to grow and manage our business. In addition, we may not have the ability to refinance or pay such amounts when due if we do not begin generating revenue. The amount of our indebtedness and payment obligations could limit our ability to obtain further financing and limit our ability to pursue our operational and strategic goals and opportunities, and adversely affect our liquidity position if the Claims we purchase do not generate proceeds at the rate we expect, if at all. The increased leverage, potential lack of access to financing and increased expenses could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Failure to obtain or maintain ongoing financing to fund operations would negatively impact our business.

On March 29, 2023, the Company entered into an Amended and Restated Credit Agreement with affiliates of Hazel, as the lender and administrative agent with respect to an aggregate $80 million term loan credit facility consisting of a Term Loan A commitment to fund up to $30 million (in multiple installments) in proceeds and a Term Loan B commitment to fund up to $18 million (in multiple installments) in proceeds, in each case, after taking into account an original issue discount (collectively, the "Working Capital Credit Facility"). This Working Capital Credit Facility, our continued source of funding for operations, is contingent on compliance with certain covenants, which we may not meet. If we fail to meet comply with these covenants, continued funding may cease, substantially impairing our ability to continue our operations, including the pursuit of recoveries. On May 11, 2023 and June 13, 2023, Hazel notified us that it would not disburse additional funds under the Working Capital Credit Facility until the Company satisfies certain funding conditions, including the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The parties subsequently agreed that $5.5 million will be funded under Term Loan A in accordance with the terms of the Working Capital Credit Facility subsequent to the filing of this 2022 Form 10-K and receipt of funding notices, deeming funding conditions satisfied or waived. Following such funding, the Term Loan A commitment would be terminated, with total funding of $20.5 million. In addition, the parties agreed to increase the Term Loan B commitment from $18 million to $27.5 million, which will be funded in multiple installments and in accordance with the terms of the Working Capital Credit Facility. A failure to obtain or maintain financing to fund operations would require us to significantly reduce operations and would have a material adverse effect on future operating prospects.

Adverse judgments or settlements in litigation, regulatory or other dispute resolution proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are currently party to, and may in the future become party to, lawsuits and other claims against us that arise from time to time in the ordinary course of our business. These may include lawsuits and claims related to, for example, contracts, subcontracts, protection of confidential information or trade secrets, wage and benefits, employment of our workforce or compliance with any of a wide array of state and federal statutes, rules and regulations that pertain to different aspects of our business. We also may be required to initiate expensive litigation or other proceedings to protect our business interests. In addition, because of the payments we may receive from potential future government Assignors, we may become subject to unexpected inquiries, investigations, legal actions or enforcement proceedings pursuant to the False Claims Act, healthcare fraud, waste and abuse laws or similar legislation. Any investigations, settlements or adverse judgments stemming from such legal disputes or other claims may result in significant monetary damages or injunctive relief against us, as well as reputational injury that could adversely affect us. In addition, litigation and other legal claims are subject to inherent uncertainties and management’s view of currently pending legal matters may change in the future. Those uncertainties include, but are not limited to, costs of litigation, unpredictable judicial or jury decisions and the differing laws and judicial proclivities regarding damage awards among the states in which we operate. Unexpected outcomes in such legal proceedings, or changes in management’s evaluation or predictions of the likely outcomes of such proceedings (possibly resulting in changes in established reserves) could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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If we are unable to successfully identify and recover on future Claims, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

As a part of our business plan, we have acquired the right to pursue recoveries and we intend to continue to pursue acquiring additional Claims to support our business strategy. These recoveries can involve a number of risks and challenges, any of which could cause significant operating inefficiencies and adversely affect our growth and profitability. Such risks and challenges include:

underperformance relative to our expectations and the price paid for the Claims;
unanticipated demands on our management and operational resources;
failure to successfully recover on legal Claims;
difficulty in integrating personnel, operations, and systems;
maintaining current customers and securing future customers of the combined businesses;
assumption of liabilities; and
litigation-related charges.

The profits of Claims may take considerable time to recover and certain recoveries may fall short of expected returns. If our recoveries are not successful, we may record impairment charges. Our ability to grow our capital will depend upon our success at identifying and recovering legal Claims, which requires substantial judgment in assessing their values, strengths, weaknesses, liabilities, and potential profitability, as well as the availability of capital.

If we fail to accurately calculate the Paid Amount and Paid Value of Potential Recoverable Claims, it can have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.

Typically, we identify recoverable Claims using our proprietary Algorithms which comb through historical paid Claims data and search for potential recoveries. Our potential ability to achieve recovery revenues are based largely on the Paid Value of Potentially Recoverable Claims of our portfolio and our ability to discover, quantify and settle the gap between Billed Amount and Paid Amount on a large scale. If we fail to accurately calculate the Paid Amount or the Paid Value of Potential Recoverable Claims, the Recovery Multiple or the recovery rights we are entitled to may not be appropriately captured, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Failure of our software vendors, utility providers and network providers to perform as expected, changes in our relationships with them, or losing access to data sources may adversely affect our business.

Our ability to service our Assignors and deliver and implement solutions requires that we work with certain third-party providers, including software vendors, utility providers and network providers, and depends on such third parties meeting our expectations in both timeliness and quality. We might incur significant additional liabilities if the services provided by these third parties do not meet our expectations, if they terminate or refuse to renew their relationships with us or if they were to offer their services to us on less advantageous terms, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, while there are backup systems in many of our operating facilities, an extended outage of utility or network services supplied by these vendors or providers could impair our ability to deliver our solutions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our ability to service our Assignors and deliver and implement solutions requires that we use several data sources when identifying recoveries. If we were to lose access to those data sources, including as a result of any termination of our data access arrangements, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be sued by third parties for alleged infringement of their proprietary rights.

Our success depends also in part on us not infringing the intellectual property rights of others. Our competitors, as well as a number of other entities and individuals, may own or claim to own intellectual property relating to our industry. In the future, such third parties may claim that we are infringing their intellectual property rights, and we may be found to be infringing such rights. Any claims or litigation could cause us to incur significant expenses and, if successfully asserted against us, could require that we pay substantial damages or ongoing royalty payments, prevent us from offering our services, or require that we comply with other unfavorable terms. Even if we were to prevail in such a dispute, any litigation could be costly and time-consuming and divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations.

Changes in, or interpretations of, tax rules and regulations may adversely affect our effective tax rates.

We have operations throughout the United States and in Puerto Rico. Accordingly, we are subject to taxation in many jurisdictions with increasingly complex tax laws, the application of which can be uncertain.

Unanticipated changes in our tax rates could affect our future financial condition and results of operations. Our future effective tax rates could be unfavorably affected by changes in the tax rates in jurisdictions where our income is earned and taxed, by changes in, or our interpretation of, tax rules and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we do business, by increases in expenses not

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deductible for tax purposes including impairments of goodwill, by changes in GAAP or other applicable accounting standards or by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities.

In addition, we are subject to the continual examination of our income tax returns by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) and other domestic and international tax authorities. Tax authorities in various jurisdictions may disagree with and subsequently challenge the amount of profits taxed in their state or country, which may result in increased tax liability, including accrued interest and penalties, which would cause our tax expense to increase. There can be no assurance that the final determination of any of these examinations will not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We will be required to pay the Tax Receivable Agreement ("TRA") Parties (as defined in the TRA) for most of the benefits relating to, among other things, an increase in tax attributes as a result of the Company’s direct and indirect allocable share of existing tax basis acquired in the Business Combination, and the Company’s increase in its allocable share of existing tax basis and anticipated tax basis adjustments we receive in connection with sales or exchanges of Up-C Units after the Business Combination.

In connection with the Business Combination, we entered into a TRA with the TRA Parties (as defined in the TRA) that provides for the payment by the Company to such TRA Parties of 85% of the benefits, if any, that the Company is deemed to realize (calculated using certain assumptions) as a result of: (i) the Company’s direct and indirect allocable share of existing tax basis acquired in the Business Combination, (ii) increases in the Company’s allocable share of existing tax basis and tax basis adjustments that will increase the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of Opco as a result of the Business Combination and as a result of sales or exchanges of Up-C Units for cash or shares of the Company’s Class A common stock, and (iii) certain other tax benefits related to entering into the TRA, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the TRA. These increases in existing tax basis and tax basis adjustments generated over time may reduce the amount of tax that the Company would otherwise be required to pay in the future, although the IRS may challenge all or part of the validity of that tax basis, and a court could sustain such a challenge. Actual tax benefits realized by the Company may differ from tax benefits calculated under the TRA as a result of the use of certain assumptions in the TRA, including the use of an assumed weighted-average state and local income tax rate to calculate tax benefits. The payment obligation under the TRA is an obligation of the Company and not of Opco. While the amount of existing tax basis, the anticipated tax basis adjustments and the actual amount and utilization of tax attributes, as well as the amount and timing of any payments under the TRA, will vary depending upon a number of factors, including the timing of exchanges of Up-C Units for shares of the Company common stock, the applicable tax rate, the price of shares of the Company’s Class A common stock at the time of exchanges, the extent to which such exchanges are taxable and the amount and timing of our income, we expect that as a result of the size of the transfers and increases in the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of Opco and our possible utilization of tax attributes, including existing tax basis acquired at the time of the Business Combination, the payments that the Company may make under the TRA will be substantial. The payments under the TRA are not conditioned on the exchanging holders of Opco Units or other TRA Parties continuing to hold ownership interests in us. To the extent payments are due to the TRA Parties under the TRA, the payments are generally required to be made within five business days after the tax benefit schedule (which sets forth the Company’s realized tax benefits covered by the TRA for the relevant taxable year) is finalized. The Company is required to deliver such a tax benefit schedule to the TRA Parties’ Representative (as defined in the TRA), for its review, within ninety calendar days after the due date (including extensions) of the Company’s federal corporate income tax return for the relevant taxable year.

Payments under the TRA may be accelerated and/or significantly exceed the actual tax benefits the Company realizes under the TRA and such accelerations may impair our ability to consummate change of control transactions.

The Company’s payment obligations under the TRA will be accelerated in the event of certain changes of control or its election to terminate the TRA early. The accelerated payments will relate to all relevant tax attributes then allocable to the Company in the case of an acceleration upon a change of control and to all relevant tax attributes allocable or that would be allocable to the Company (in the case of an election by the Company to terminate the TRA early, assuming all Up-C Units were then exchanged). The accelerated payments required in such circumstances will be calculated by reference to the present value (at a specified discount rate determined by reference to LIBOR) of all future payments that holders of Up-C Units or other recipients would have been entitled to receive under the TRA, and such accelerated payments and any other future payments under the TRA will utilize certain valuation assumptions, including that the Company will have sufficient taxable income to fully utilize the deductions arising from the increased tax deductions and tax basis and other benefits related to entering into the TRA. In addition, recipients of payments under the TRA will not reimburse us for any payments previously made under the TRA if such tax basis and the Company’s utilization of certain tax attributes is successfully challenged by the IRS (although any such detriment would be taken into account in future payments under the TRA). The Company’s ability to achieve benefits from any existing tax basis, tax basis adjustments or other tax attributes, and the payments to be made under the TRA, will depend upon a number of factors, including the timing and amount of our future income. As a result, even in the absence of a change of control or an election to terminate the TRA, payments under the TRA could be in excess of 85% of the Company’s actual cash tax benefits.

Accordingly, it is possible that the actual cash tax benefits realized by the Company may be significantly less than the corresponding TRA payments or that payments under the TRA may be made years in advance of the actual realization, if any, of the anticipated future tax benefits. There may be a material negative effect on our liquidity if the payments under the TRA exceed the actual cash tax benefits that the Company realizes in respect of the tax attributes subject to the TRA and/or distributions to the Company by Opco are not sufficient to permit the Company to make payments under the TRA after it has paid taxes and other

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expenses. We may need to incur additional indebtedness to finance payments under the TRA to the extent our cash resources are insufficient to meet our obligations under the TRA as a result of timing discrepancies or otherwise, and these obligations could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing certain mergers, asset sales, other forms of business combinations or other changes of control.

The acceleration of payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement in the case of certain changes of control may impair our ability to consummate change of control transactions or negatively impact the value of our Company common stock.

In the case of a “Change of Control” under the TRA (which is defined to include, among other things, a 50% change in control of the Company, the approval of a complete plan of liquidation or dissolution of the Company, or the disposition of all or substantially all of the Company’s direct or indirect assets), payments under the TRA will be accelerated and may significantly exceed the actual benefits the Company realizes in respect of the tax attributes subject to the TRA. We expect that the payments that we may make under the TRA (the calculation of which is described in the immediately preceding risk factor) in the event of a change of control will be substantial. As a result, our accelerated payment obligations and/or the assumptions adopted under the TRA in the case of a change of control may impair our ability to consummate change of control transactions or negatively impact the value received by owners of our Company common stock in a change of control transaction.

Our success is dependent upon the efforts of our key personnel. The loss of key personnel could negatively impact the operations and profitability of the Company and its financial condition could suffer as a result.

It is possible that we will lose some key personnel, the loss of which could negatively impact the operations and profitability of the Company. We anticipate that some or all of the management of the Company will remain in place.

The Company’s success depends to a significant degree upon the continued contributions of senior management, certain of whom would be difficult to replace. Departure by certain of the Company’s officers could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition or operating results. The Company does not maintain key-man life insurance on any of its officers. The services of such personnel may not continue to be available to the Company.

Our business is dependent on our ability to attract and retain qualified employees.

Our ability to operate our business and provide our solutions is dependent on our ability to recruit, employ, train and retain the skilled personnel who have relevant experience in the healthcare and data analytics industries as well as information technology professionals who can design, implement, operate and maintain complex information technology systems. For example, certain of our employees in our company must either have or rapidly develop a significant amount of technical knowledge with regard to medical insurance coding and procedures. In addition, certain of our retrospective data-driven solutions rely on a team of trained registered nurses or medical coding professionals to review medical information and provide feedback with respect to the medical appropriateness of care provided. Innovative, experienced and technologically proficient professionals, qualified nurses and experienced medical coding professionals are in great demand and are likely to remain a limited resource. Our ability to recruit and retain such individuals depends on a number of factors, including the competitive demands for employees having, or able to rapidly develop, the specialized skills we need and the level and structure of compensation required to hire and retain such employees. We may not be able to recruit or retain the personnel necessary to efficiently operate and support our business. Even if our recruitment and retention strategies are successful, our labor costs may increase significantly. In addition, our internal training programs may not be successful in providing inexperienced personnel with the specialized skills required to perform their duties. If we are unable to hire, train and retain sufficient personnel with the requisite skills without significantly increasing our labor costs, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

General economic, political and market forces and dislocations beyond our control could reduce demand for our solutions and our overall business, may suffer from an economic downturn.

The demand for our data-driven solutions may be impacted by factors that are beyond our control, including macroeconomic, political and market conditions, the availability of short-term and long-term funding and capital, the level and volatility of interest rates, currency exchange rates and inflation. The United States economy recently experienced periods of contraction and both the future domestic and global economic environments may continue to be less favorable than those of prior years. Any one or more of these factors may contribute to reduced activity and prices in the securities markets generally and could result in a reduction in demand for our solutions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

COVID-19 or another pandemic, epidemic, or outbreak of an infectious disease may have an adverse effect on our business, the nature and extent of which are highly uncertain and unpredictable.

The severity, magnitude and duration of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is uncertain and rapidly changing. As of the date of this Form 10-K, the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may impact our business, results of operations and financial condition remains uncertain. Furthermore, because of our business model, the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic may not be fully reflected in our results of operations and overall financial condition until future periods.

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We are concentrated in certain geographic regions, which makes us sensitive to regulatory, economic, environmental and competitive conditions in those regions.

Due to the concentration of our operations in Florida, our business may be adversely affected by economic conditions that disproportionately affect Florida as compared to other states. In addition, our exposure to many of the risks described herein are not mitigated by a diversification of geographic focus.

Moreover, regions in and around the southeastern United States commonly experience hurricanes and other extreme weather conditions. As a result, our offices, especially those in Florida and Puerto Rico, are susceptible to physical damage and business interruption from an active hurricane season or a single severe storm. Moreover, global climate change could increase the intensity of individual hurricanes or the number of hurricanes that occur each year. Even if our facilities are not directly damaged, we may experience considerable disruptions in our operations due to property damage or electrical outages experienced in storm-affected areas by our employees. Additionally, long-term adverse weather conditions, whether caused by global climate change or otherwise, could cause an outmigration of people from the communities where our offices are located. If any of the circumstances described above occurred, there could be a harmful effect on our business and our results of operations could be adversely affected.

We depend on our senior management team and other key employees, and the loss of one or more of these employees or an inability to attract and retain other highly skilled employees could harm our business.

Our success depends largely upon the continued services of our senior management team and other key employees. We rely on our leadership team in the areas of operations, information technology and security, marketing, compliance and general and administrative functions. From time to time, there may be changes in our executive management team resulting from the hiring or departure of executives, which could disrupt our business. The loss (including as a result of a COVID-19 infection) of one or more of the members of our senior management team, or other key employees, could harm our business. In particular, the loss of the services of our founder and Chief Executive Officer, John H. Ruiz, could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our strategic objectives. Changes in our executive management team may also cause disruptions in, and harm to, our business.

Our overall business results may suffer from an economic downturn.

During periods of high unemployment, governmental entities often experience budget deficits as a result of increased costs and lower than expected tax collections. These budget deficits affect federal, state and local government entities and may result in reductions in spending for health and human service programs, including Medicare, Medicaid and similar programs, which represent significant payer sources for our Assignors.

Risks Related to Our Securities

In this section, “we,” “us,” “our,” and other similar terms refer to MSP Recovery, Inc. d/b/a LifeWallet and its subsidiaries prior to the Business Combination and to the Company following the Business Combination.

We are controlled by the Members, including John H. Ruiz and Frank C. Quesada, whose interests may conflict with our interests and the interests of other stockholders. Further, our status as a “controlled company” on Nasdaq removes certain corporate governance protections.

The Members (or their designees) hold all of our issued and outstanding Class V Common Stock, which control approximately 97.7% of the combined voting power of our common stock, and John H. Ruiz and Frank C. Quesada, as a group, control approximately 97.8% of the combined voting power of our common stock. They effectively have the ability to determine all corporate actions requiring stockholder approval, including the election and removal of directors, any amendment to our certificate of incorporation or bylaws, or the approval of any merger or other significant corporate transaction, including a sale of substantially all of our assets. This could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control or otherwise discouraging a potential acquirer from attempting to obtain control of the Company, which could cause the market price of our Class A Common Stock to decline or prevent stockholders from realizing a premium over the market price for Class A Common Stock. The Members’ interests may conflict with our interests as a company or the interests of our other stockholders.

Our stockholders will experience substantial dilution as a consequence of, among other transactions, any future issuances of common stock.

The Company currently has an aggregate of 3,084,305 Public Warrants outstanding and no Private Warrants outstanding, which have become exercisable as of 10 days after closing of the Business Combination, on a cashless basis with an exercise price of $0.0001.

In addition, there are outstanding or designated Up-C Units that may be exchanged for 3,106,616,119 shares of Common Stock.

In addition, the Company will have the ability to issue up to 98,736,750 shares of Class A Common Stock pursuant to awards under the Incentive Plan. The shares of Class A Common Stock reserved for future issuance under the Incentive Plan will become eligible for sale in the public market once those shares are issued, subject to provisions relating to various vesting agreements, lock-up agreements and, in some cases, limitations on volume and manner of sale applicable to affiliates under Rule 144, as applicable. The aggregate number of shares that may be issued pursuant to awards under the Incentive Plan will be subject to an annual increase on

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January 1 of each calendar year (commencing with January 1, 2023 and ending on and including January 1, 2031) equal to the lesser of (i) a number of shares equal to 3% of the total number of shares actually issued and outstanding on the last day of the preceding fiscal year or (ii) a number of shares as determined by the Board. The Company filed one or more registration statements on Form S-8 under the Securities Act to register shares of Class A Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Class A Common Stock issued pursuant to the Incentive Plan. Any such Form S-8 registration statements will automatically become effective upon filing. Accordingly, shares registered under such registration statements will be available for sale in the open market.

Depending upon market liquidity at the time, sales of shares of our Class A Common Stock under the Yorkville Purchase Agreement may cause the trading price of our Class A Common Stock to decline. After Yorkville has acquired shares under the Yorkville Purchase Agreement, it may sell all, some or none of those shares. Sales to Yorkville by us pursuant to the Yorkville Purchase Agreement may result in substantial dilution to the interests of other holders of our Class A Common Stock. The sale of a substantial number of shares of our Class A Common Stock to Yorkville, or anticipation of such sales, could make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and at a price that we might otherwise wish to effect sales. However, we have the right to control the timing and amount of any sales of our shares to Yorkville, and the Yorkville Purchase Agreement may be terminated by us at any time at our discretion without penalty.

The sale of substantial amounts of shares of our Common Stock or warrants, or the perception that such sales could occur, could cause the prevailing market price of shares of our Common Stock and warrants to decline significantly. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate. We believe the likelihood that warrant holders will exercise their warrants is dependent upon the market price of our Common Stock.

We qualify as a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq listing standards and, as a result, our stockholders may not have certain corporate governance protections that are available to stockholders of companies that are not controlled companies.

So long as more than 50% of the voting power for the election of directors is held by an individual, a group or another company, we will qualify as a “controlled company” under the Nasdaq listing requirements. Mr. Ruiz controls more than a majority of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock. As a result, we qualify as a “controlled company” under the Nasdaq listing standards and will not be subject to the requirements that would otherwise require us to have: (i) a majority of “independent directors,” as defined under the listing standards of Nasdaq; (ii) a nominating and corporate governance committee comprised solely of independent directors; and (iii) a compensation committee comprised solely of independent directors. In addition, the Members, including John H. Ruiz and Frank C. Quesada have the ability to control matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election and removal of directors, any amendment to our certificate of incorporation or bylaws, or the approval of any merger or other significant corporate transaction, including a sale of substantially all of our assets. See “We are controlled by the Members, including John H. Ruiz and Frank C. Quesada, whose interests may conflict with our interests and the interests of other stockholders.”

The Members, including John H. Ruiz and Frank C. Quesada (together, the "MSP Principals"), may have their interest in us diluted due to future equity issuances, repurchases under the LLC Agreement from the MSP Principals in connection with the exercise of New Warrants or Members or their designees selling shares of Class A Common Stock, in each case, which could result in a loss of the “controlled company” exemption under the Nasdaq listing rules. We would then be required to comply with those provisions of the Nasdaq listing requirements.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of Nasdaq.

Our Class A Common Stock, Public Warrants and New Warrants are currently listed on Nasdaq. If Nasdaq delists our Class A Common Stock, Public Warrants or New Warrants from trading on its exchange for failure to meet the listing standards, we and our stockholders could face significant material adverse consequences including:

a limited availability of market quotations for our securities;
reduced liquidity for our securities;
a determination that the Class A Common Stock is a “penny stock” which will require brokers trading in the Class A Common Stock to adhere to more stringent rules and possibly result in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for our securities;
a limited amount of news and analyst coverage; and
a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in future.

The National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996, which is a federal statute, prevents or preempts the states from regulating the sale of certain securities, which are referred to as “covered securities.” To the extent our Class A Common Stock, Public Warrants and New Warrants are listed on Nasdaq, they are covered securities. Although the states are preempted from regulating the sale of our securities, the federal statute does allow the states to investigate companies if there is a suspicion of fraud, and, if there is a finding of fraudulent activity, then the states can regulate or bar the sale of covered securities in a particular case.

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Failure to meet the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq could result in the delisting of our common stock, thus negatively impacting the price value of our common stock and negatively impacting our ability to raise additional capital.

On April 18, 2023, we received a notification letter from the Listing Qualifications Department of the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) stating the Company was not in compliance with the requirements of Nasdaq Listing Rule 5250(c)(1) (the “Reporting Rule”) as a result of not having timely filed this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “2022 Form 10-K”) with the SEC. In addition, on May 18, 2023, we received a written notice from Nasdaq stating that the Company was not in compliance with Nasdaq’s continued listing requirements under the Reporting Rule as a result our failure to file our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2023 in a timely manner (the “First Quarter Form 10-Q”). Under the Nasdaq rules, the Company had 60 calendar days, or until June 20, 2023, to file the 2022 Form 10-K and First Quarter Form 10-Q or to submit to Nasdaq a plan to regain compliance with the Nasdaq Listing Rules.

On April 24, 2023, we received notice from Nasdaq that the closing bid price for our common stock had been below $1.00 per share for the previous 30 consecutive business days, and that we are therefore not in compliance with the minimum bid price requirement for continued inclusion on Nasdaq under Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(a)(1) (the “Minimum Bid Requirement”). The notice indicates that we will have 180 calendar days, or until October 23, 2023, to regain compliance with this requirement. We can regain compliance with the $1.00 minimum bid listing requirement if the closing bid price of our common stock is at least $1.00 per share for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days during the 180-day compliance period. If we do not regain compliance during such 180-day compliance period, the Company may be eligible for an additional 180 calendar days, provided that the Company meets the continued listing requirement for market value of publicly held shares and all other applicable initial listing standards for Nasdaq, and provides a written notice of its intention to cure this deficiency during the second compliance period, including by effecting a reverse stock split, if necessary.

On June 20, 2023, the Company submitted a plan of compliance to achieve and sustain compliance with all Nasdaq Capital Market listing requirements, including the Reporting Rule and Minimum Bid Requirement. On July 7, Nasdaq notified the Company that it was granting an extension to file the 2022 Form 10-K and the First Quarter Form 10-K on or before August 7, 2023. The Company intends file its First Quarter Form 10-Q on or before such date, and to actively monitor its bid price.

If we fail to achieve our plan of compliance or in the future we fail to comply with Nasdaq’s continued listing requirements, including the Reporting Rule and Minimum Bid Requirement, our common stock will be subject to delisting. In the event we receive notice that our common stock is being delisted, Nasdaq rules permit us to appeal any delisting determination by the Nasdaq staff to a Hearings Panel. If our common stock were to be delisted by Nasdaq, our common stock would be subject to rules that impose additional sales practice requirements on broker-dealers who sell our securities. The additional burdens imposed upon broker-dealers by these requirements could discourage broker-dealers from effecting transactions in our common stock. This would adversely affect the ability of investors to trade our common stock and would adversely affect the value of our common stock. These factors could contribute to lower prices and larger spreads in the bid and ask prices for our common stock. The delisting of our common stock from Nasdaq would also adversely affect our ability to complete future financings.

If our shares are delisted from Nasdaq and become subject to the penny stock rules, it would become more difficult to trade our shares.

The SEC has adopted rules that regulate broker-dealer practices in connection with transactions in penny stocks. Penny stocks are generally equity securities with a price of less than $5.00, other than securities registered on certain national securities exchanges or authorized for quotation on certain automated quotation systems, provided that current price and volume information with respect to transactions in such securities is provided by the exchange or system. If we do retain a listing on Nasdaq and if the price of our common stock is less than $5.00, our Common Stock will be deemed a penny stock. The penny stock rules require a broker-dealer, before a transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, to deliver a standardized risk disclosure document containing specified information. In addition, the penny stock rules require that before effecting any transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, a broker-dealer must make a special written determination that the penny stock is a suitable investment for the purchaser and receive: (i) the purchaser’s written acknowledgment of the receipt of a risk disclosure statement; (ii) a written agreement to transactions involving penny stocks; and (iii) a signed and dated copy of a written suitability statement. These disclosure requirements may have the effect of reducing the trading activity in the secondary market for our common stock, and therefore stockholders may have difficulty selling their shares.

We may be required to take write-downs or write-offs, restructuring and impairment or other charges that could have a significant negative effect on our financial condition, results of operations and our stock price, which could cause you to lose some or all of your investment.

Although due diligence was conducted on MSP prior to the Business Combination, we cannot assure you that this diligence surfaced all material issues that may be present in MSP’s business, that it would be possible to uncover all material issues through a customary amount of due diligence, or that factors outside of MSP’s business and outside of our and MSP’s control will not later arise. As a result of these factors, we may be forced to write down or write off assets, restructure operations, or incur impairment or other charges that could result in losses. Even if our due diligence successfully identifies certain risks, unexpected risks may arise and previously known risks may materialize in a manner not consistent with our preliminary risk analysis. Even though these charges may

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be non-cash items and not have an immediate impact on our liquidity, the fact that we report charges of this nature could contribute to negative market perceptions about the Company or its securities. Accordingly, any of our stockholders could suffer a reduction in the value of their shares. Such stockholders are unlikely to have a remedy for such reduction in value.

Unanticipated changes in effective tax rates or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our income or other tax returns could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We will be subject to federal and state income taxes in the United States and potentially in other jurisdictions. Our future effective tax rates could be subject to volatility or adversely affected by a number of factors, including:

changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities;
expected timing and amount of the release of any tax valuation allowances;
tax effects of stock-based compensation;
changes in tax laws, regulations, or interpretations thereof; or
lower than anticipated future earnings in jurisdictions where we have lower statutory tax rates and higher than anticipated future earnings in jurisdictions where we have higher statutory tax rates.

In addition, we may be subject to audits of our income, sales and other transaction taxes by taxing authorities. Outcomes from these audits could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We may be unable to obtain additional financing to fund the operations and growth of the Company.

We may require additional financing to fund the operations or growth of the Company. The failure to secure additional financing could have a material adverse effect on the continued development or growth of the Company. None of our officers, directors or stockholders is required to provide any financing to us.

In some jurisdictions, our recoveries may be limited due to legal restrictions, which may have negative consequences for the value or enforcement of our contractual agreements with our counterparties, for our ability to do business in certain jurisdictions or for our cost of doing business.

There exist in various jurisdictions prohibitions or restrictions in connection with purchasing Claims from plaintiffs (known as maintenance, and a form of maintenance, called champerty), assignment of certain kinds of Claims, and/or participating in a lawyer’s contingent fee interests. Such prohibitions and restrictions, to the extent they exist, are governed by the rules and regulations of each state and jurisdiction in the United States and vary in degrees of strength and enforcement in different states and federal jurisdictions. Some jurisdictions in the U.S. and other jurisdictions may not, for legal and professional ethics reasons, permit us to pursue certain recoveries, or the law and regulations in those jurisdictions may be uncertain, and accordingly we may not have the ability or the desire to pursue recoveries in these jurisdictions, thereby limiting the size of the potential market. If we, our counterparties or the lawyers handling the underlying matters were to be found to have violated the relevant prohibitions or restrictions in connection with certain matters, there could be a materially adverse effect on the value of the affected assets, our ability to enforce the relevant contractual agreements with our counterparties and the amounts we would be able to recover with respect to such matters, or our costs for such matters.

Anti-takeover provisions contained in our Charter and bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.

Our Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (our “Charter”) contains provisions that may discourage unsolicited takeover proposals that stockholders may consider to be in their best interests. We are also subject to anti-takeover provisions under Delaware law, which could delay or prevent a change of control. Together, these provisions may make more difficult the removal of management and may discourage transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices for our securities. These provisions include:

no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect candidates to serve as a director of the Board;
a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms, which could delay the ability of stockholders to change the membership of a majority of the Board;
the requirement that, at any time from and after the date on which the voting power of John H. Ruiz and his affiliates represent less than 50% of the voting power of all of the then outstanding shares entitled to vote (“Voting Rights Threshold Date”), directors elected by the stockholders generally entitled to vote may be removed from the Board solely for cause and only by affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of the then outstanding shares entitled to vote, voting together as a single class;

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the exclusive right of the Board to fill newly created directorships and vacancies with respect to directors elected by the stockholders generally entitled to vote, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on the Board;
the prohibition on stockholder action by written consent from and after the Voting Rights Threshold Date, which forces stockholder action from and after the Voting Rights Threshold Date to be taken at an annual or special meeting of stockholders;
the requirement that special meetings of stockholders may only be called by the Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer of the Company or the Board, which may delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors;
the requirement that, from and after the Voting Rights Threshold Date, amendments to certain provisions of the Charter and amendments to the Amended and Restated Bylaws must be approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% in voting power of the then outstanding shares of the Company generally entitled to vote;
our authorized but unissued shares of common stock and preferred stock are available for future issuances without stockholder approval and could be utilized for a variety of corporate purposes, including future offerings to raise additional capital, acquisitions and employee benefit plans; the existence of authorized but unissued and unreserved shares of common stock and preferred stock could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise;
advance notice procedures set forth in the Amended and Restated Bylaws that stockholders must comply with in order to nominate candidates to the Board or to propose other matters to be acted upon at a meeting of stockholders, which may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of the Company;
an exclusive forum provision which provides that, unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, (i) any derivative action brought on behalf of the Company, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, or employee of the Company to the Company or the Company’s stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim; and
arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, the Charter or the Amended and Restated Bylaws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine of the State of Delaware, in each case, will be required to be filed in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware lacks jurisdiction over any such action or proceeding, then a state court located within the State of Delaware or the federal district court for the District of Delaware).

The Charter contains a provision renouncing our interest and expectancy in certain corporate opportunities.

The Charter provides that the Company will have no interests or expectancy in, or being offered an opportunity to participate in any corporate opportunity, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, with respect to any lines of business or business activity or business venture conducted by any holder of common stock, any affiliate of such holder or any director, officer or stockholder of such holder or any affiliate thereof (“Relevant Persons”) as of the date of the filing of the Charter with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware or received by, presented to or originated by the Relevant Persons after the date of the filing of the Charter with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware in such person’s capacity as a Relevant Person (and not in his, her or its capacity as a director, officer or employee of the Company). These provisions of the Charter create the possibility that a corporate opportunity of ours may be used for the benefit of the Relevant Persons.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

In this section, unless otherwise noted or the context otherwise requires, “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to the Company.

The market price of our common stock may be significantly volatile.

The market price for our common stock may be significantly volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to factors including the following:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;
changes in financial or operational estimates or projections;
conditions in markets generally;
changes in legislation that may affect our business;
changes in the economic performance or market valuations of companies similar to ours; and
general economic or political conditions in the United States or elsewhere.

 

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In addition, if we fail to reach an important recovery milestone or result by a publicly expected deadline, even if by only a small margin, there could be significant impact on the market price of our common stock. Additionally, as we approach the announcement of anticipated significant information and as we announce such information, we expect the price of our common stock to be particularly volatile, and negative results would have a substantial negative impact on the price of our common stock.

 

In some cases, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, stockholders have often instituted class action securities litigation against those companies. Such litigation, if instituted, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management attention and resources, which could significantly harm our business operations and reputation.

A market for our securities may not continue, which would adversely affect the liquidity and price of our securities.

The price of our securities may fluctuate significantly due to the market’s reaction to the Business Combination and general market and economic conditions. An active trading market for our securities may never develop or, if developed, it may not be sustained. In addition, the price of our securities can vary due to general economic conditions and forecasts, our general business condition and the release of our financial reports. Additionally, if our securities are not listed on, or become delisted from, Nasdaq for any reason, and are quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board, an inter-dealer automated quotation system for equity securities that is not a national securities exchange, the liquidity and price of our securities may be more limited than if we were quoted or listed on Nasdaq or another national securities exchange. You may be unable to sell your securities unless a market can be established or sustained.

If the Business Combination’s benefits do not meet the expectations of investors, stockholders, or financial analysts, the market price of our securities may decline.

If the benefits of the Business Combination do not meet the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the market price of the Company’s securities may decline.

The trading price of our common stock is highly volatile and is subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control, including limited trading volume. In addition to the factors discussed in this “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this annual report, these factors include:

the valuation ascribed to MSP and the Company’s Class A Common Stock in the Business Combination may not be indicative of the price of the Company that will prevail in the current trading market,
research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, our market, or our competitors,
our dual class structure could make us ineligible for inclusion in certain indices, and as a result, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds and other investment vehicles that attempt to passively track those indices will not be investing in our stock,
our status as an “emerging growth company” allows us exemptions from certain reporting requirements including: (i) the exemption from the auditor attestation requirements with respect to internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“SOX”); (ii) the exemptions from say-on-pay, say-on-frequency and say-on-golden parachute voting requirements; (iii) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements; and (iv) delayed adoption of certain accounting standards. The attractiveness of our Class A Common Stock as a result of these exemptions cannot be predicted.

In such circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.

If securities analysts publish negative evaluations of our stock or stop publishing research or reports about our business, the price of our stock could decline.

The trading market for our common stock relies in part on the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us or our business. We currently have limited research coverage by financial analysts. Securities analysts may discontinue coverage or downgrade their evaluation of our stock. If any of the analysts who continue to cover or cover us in the future downgrade their evaluation of our common stock or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our common stock price may decline. If additional analysts cease to cover our stock, we could lose visibility in the market for our stock, which in turn could cause our stock price to decline.

We cannot predict the impact our dual class capital structure may have on the market price of the shares of Class A Common Stock.

We cannot predict whether our dual class structure, combined with the concentrated control of the Company, will result in a lower or more volatile market price of the Class A Common Stock or in adverse publicity or other adverse consequences. For example, certain index providers have announced restrictions on including companies with multiple-class share structures in certain of their indices. Under any such announced policies or future policies, our dual class capital structure could make us ineligible for inclusion in certain indices, and as a result, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds and other investment vehicles that attempt to passively track those indices will not be investing in our stock. It is unclear what effect, if any, these policies will have on the

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valuations of publicly traded companies excluded from such indices, but it is possible that they may depress valuations as compared to similar companies that are included. As a result, the market price of shares of Class A Common Stock could be adversely affected.

We may amend the terms of the Public Warrants in a manner that may be adverse to holders with the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants. As a result, the exercise price of a holder’s Public Warrants could be increased, the exercise period could be shortened and the number of shares of our Common Stock purchasable upon exercise of a Public Warrant could be decreased, all without the approval of that warrant holder.

Our Public Warrants were issued in registered form under the Existing Warrant Agreement. The Existing Warrant Agreement provides that the terms of the Public Warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision or provide for the delivery of Alternative Issuance (as defined in the Existing Warrant Agreement) but requires the approval by the holders of at least 65% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants to make any other change, including any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders. Accordingly, we may amend the terms of the Public Warrants in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 65% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants approve of such amendment. Although our ability to amend the terms of the Public Warrants with the consent of at least 65% of the then-outstanding Public Warrants is unlimited, examples of such amendments could be amendments to, among other things, increase the exercise price of the Public Warrants, shorten the exercise period or decrease the number of shares of Class A Common Stock purchasable upon exercise of a Public Warrant.

We may redeem unexpired Public Warrants and New Warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to warrant holders, thereby making such warrants worthless.

We have the ability to redeem outstanding Public Warrants and New Warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per warrant; provided that the last reported sales price of our Class A Common Stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (or as otherwise adjusted pursuant to the Existing Warrant Agreement or New Warrant Agreement, as applicable) for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date on which we give proper notice of such redemption to the warrant holders and provided certain other conditions are met. During the most recent 60-day trading period, the price of our Class A Common Stock has remained below the threshold that would allow us to redeem the Public Warrants and New Warrants. If and when the Public Warrants and New Warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise our redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. Redemption of the outstanding Public Warrants and New Warrants could force the warrant holders: (i) to exercise their Public Warrants or New Warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for them to do so; (ii) to sell their Public Warrants or New Warrants at the then-current market price when they might otherwise wish to hold their Public Warrants or New Warrants; or (iii) to accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding New Warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of their New Warrants. None of the Private Warrants will be redeemable by us so long as they are held by their initial purchasers or such initial purchasers’ permitted transferees. Pursuant to the terms of the Existing Warrant Agreement, the exercise price of the Public Warrants and Private Warrants has decreased to $0.0001 after giving effect to the issuance of the New Warrants. None of the Private Warrants will be redeemable by us so long as they are held by the Sponsor or its permitted transferees.

The Company has no obligation to notify holders of the Public Warrants or the New Warrants that they have become eligible for redemption. However, in the event the Company determined to redeem the Public Warrants or the New Warrants, holders of the Public Warrants and the New Warrants, as applicable, would be notified of such redemption as described in the Existing Warrant Agreement and the New Warrant Agreement, as applicable. Specifically, in the event that the Company elects to redeem all of the redeemable warrants as described above, the Company shall fix a date for the redemption (the “Redemption Date”). Notice of redemption shall be mailed by first class mail, postage prepaid, by the Company not less than 30 days prior to the Redemption Date to the registered holders of the redeemable warrants to be redeemed at their last addresses as they appear on the registration books. Any notice mailed in the manner provided in the Existing Warrant Agreement and the New Warrant Agreement shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given whether or not the registered holder received such notice. In addition, beneficial owners of the redeemable warrants will be notified of such redemption via the Company’s posting of the redemption notice to DTC.

Our stockholders may experience significant dilution as a result of future equity offerings or issuances and exercise of outstanding options and warrants.

In order to raise additional capital or pursue strategic transactions, we may in the future offer, issue or sell additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock, including the issuance of common stock in relation to our Incentive Plan. Our stockholders may experience significant dilution as a result of future equity offerings, issuances, or the exercising of warrants. Investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. As of December 31, 2022, we have the following number of securities convertible into, or allowing the purchase of, our common stock, including 3,319,304 Public Warrants outstanding, outstanding Up-C units exchangeable for 3,147,979,494 shares of our Common Stock, and 98,736,750 shares of Class A Common Stock reserved for future issuance under our stock incentive plan.

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Warrants have become exercisable for our Class A Common Stock, which has increased the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and may result in dilution to our stockholders.

We issued Public Warrants to purchase 11,500,000 shares of Class A Common Stock as part of our IPO and, on the IPO closing date, we issued Private Warrants to the Sponsor and Nomura to purchase in the aggregate 325,000 shares of our Class A Common Stock. In addition, the Company issued an aggregate of 1,028,046,326 New Warrants to the holders of the Company’s Class A Common Stock as of the close of business on the Closing Date. Pursuant to the terms of the Existing Warrant Agreement, the exercise price of the Public Warrants and Private Warrants decreased to $0.0001 per share after giving effect to the issuance of the New Warrants. Pursuant to the terms of the LLC Agreement, at least twice a month, to the extent any New Warrants have been exercised in accordance with their terms, the Company is required to purchase from the MSP Principals, proportionately, the number of Up-C Units or shares of Class A Common Stock owned by such MSP Principal equal to the Aggregate Exercise Price divided by the Warrant Exercise Price in exchange for the Aggregate Exercise Price. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon exercise of our warrants will result in dilution to the then existing holders of Class A Common Stock of the Company and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. Sales of substantial numbers of such shares in the public market could adversely affect the market price of our Class A Common Stock.

The Private Warrants are identical to the Public Warrants sold as part of the Public Units issued in our IPO except that, so long as they are held by the Sponsor, Nomura or their permitted transferees: (i) they will not be redeemable by us; (ii) they (including the Class A Common Stock issuable upon exercise of these warrants) may not, subject to certain limited exceptions, be transferred, assigned or sold by the Sponsor until 30 days after the completion of an initial business combination; (iii) they may be exercised by the holders on a net share (cashless) basis; and (iv) are subject to registration rights. The New Warrants will be issued in registered form under the New Warrant Agreement between the Company and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company. The New Warrant Agreement is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement and incorporated by reference herein.

The Company’s management has limited experience in operating a public company.

The Company’s executive officers have limited experience in the management of a publicly traded company. The Company’s management team may not successfully or effectively manage its transition to a public company that will be subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under federal securities laws. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant disadvantage in that it is likely that an increasing amount of their time may be devoted to these activities which will result in less time being devoted to the management and growth of the Company. The Company may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience, and training in the accounting policies, practices or internal controls over financial reporting required of publicly traded companies. The development and implementation of the standards and controls necessary for the Company to achieve the level of accounting standards required of a publicly traded company may require costs greater than expected. It is possible that the Company will be required to expand its employee base and hire additional employees to support its operations as a public company, which will increase its operating costs in future periods.

The provision of our Charter requiring exclusive forum in the courts in the State of Delaware for certain types of lawsuits may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.

The Charter requires that, unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, (i) any derivative action brought on behalf of the Company; (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, or employee of the Company to the Company or the Company’s stockholders; (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, the Charter or Amended and Restated Bylaws; or (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine of the State of Delaware, in each case, is to be filed in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware lacks jurisdiction over any such action or proceeding, then a state court located within the State of Delaware or the federal district court for the District of Delaware). The exclusive forum provision described above does not apply to actions arising under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, and Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. The Charter provides that the federal district courts of the United States of America will, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the federal securities laws, including the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder. Our decision to adopt such a federal forum provision followed a decision by the Supreme Court of the State of Delaware holding that such provisions are facially valid under Delaware law. While there can be no assurance that federal or state courts will follow the holding of the Delaware Supreme Court or determine that our federal forum provision should be enforced in a particular case, application of our federal forum provision means that suits brought by our stockholders to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder must be brought in federal court and cannot be brought in state court. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all claims brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Accordingly, actions by our stockholders to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder must be brought in federal court. Our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

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Although we believe that these exclusive forum provisions benefit us by providing greater consistency in the application of Delaware law, the exclusive forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable in disputes with us or any of our directors, officers or stockholders, which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims. Further, in the event a court finds the exclusive forum provision contained in the Charter to be unenforceable or inapplicable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

The JOBS Act permits “emerging growth companies” like us to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

We currently qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the Securities Act, as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (“JOBS Act”). As such, we take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies for as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, including: (i) the exemption from the auditor attestation requirements with respect to internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“SOX”); (ii) the exemptions from say-on-pay, say-on-frequency and say-on-golden parachute voting requirements; and (iii) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements. As a result, our stockholders may not have access to certain information they deem important. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year: (a) following August 18, 2025, the fifth anniversary of our IPO; (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion; or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our Class A Common Stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of our prior second fiscal quarter, and the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period.

In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the exemption from complying with new or revised accounting standards provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act as long as it is an emerging growth company. An emerging growth company can therefore delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies, but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected to avail ourselves of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with another public company that is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company that has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.

We cannot predict if investors will find our Class A Common Stock less attractive because we rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Class A Common Stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Class A Common Stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

Failure to establish and maintain effective internal controls could have a material adverse effect on the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting in future periods.

As a publicly traded company, we are subject to the Exchange Act and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“Sarbanes-Oxley Act” or “SOX”). The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. The standards required for a public company under Section 404 of SOX are significantly more stringent than those required of MSP as a privately held company. Further, as an emerging growth company, our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of SOX until the date we are no longer an emerging growth company. Our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event that it is not satisfied with the level at which the controls of the Company are documented, designed or operating.

As noted within “Part II, Item 9A Controls and Procedures” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we reported material weaknesses in internal control related to the following items:

We did not have sufficient controls related to the accounting for complex transactions.
We did not have sufficient controls over the human resources and payroll processes. Specifically:
o
Insufficient design of controls as the outsourced system used for payroll did not have appropriate audit and we did not have appropriate compensating controls or documented segregation of duties over the system used for payroll;
o
Insufficient implementation of controls resulting in a lack of an effective control environment over payroll entries;

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o
Insufficient design and implementation of controls within our human resources business process; and,
o
Insufficient implementation of controls resulting in a lack of proper documentation over approval of bonus payments.
Insufficient design of controls as we did not have appropriate segregation of duties and review controls over disbursements.

On April 16, 2023, a special committee of the Board of Directors was formed to review matters related to the preparation and filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. On June 13, 2023, the special committee finalized its review. The findings and recommendations of the special committee are set forth in “Part II, Item 9A Controls and Procedures” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The special committee identified deficiencies in our internal controls which we consider material weaknesses. The material weaknesses relate to failures to develop or maintain an effective system of internal disclosure controls for the timely disclosure of material communications from external sources to the Company’s management and Board of Directors for review and evaluation.

A special committee of the board of directors made unanimous recommendations to enhance and improve the public company reporting capabilities of the Company, including but not limited to:

The implementation of certain management training,
The hiring of a director of internal audit, and
Enhancements to the Company’s internal communication process, as well as increased reporting to the Audit Committee of Board of Directors.

We consider these recommendations to be indicative of material weaknesses related to a failure to develop or maintain an effective system of internal disclosure controls for the timely disclosure of material communications from external sources to the Company’s management and Board of Directors for review and evaluation. Specifically, the material weaknesses we identified were as follows:

We did not have sufficient controls related to training personnel to understand their respective roles and responsibilities.
We did not have sufficient monitoring activities, including a director of internal audit.
We did not have sufficient lines of communication internally and to the Board of Directors, and therefore did not maintain a sufficient control environment with respect to oversight of the Board of Directors.

Any failure to maintain effective internal controls, including the recommendations of the special committee, could adversely impact our ability to report our financial results on a timely and accurate basis, or may result in a restatement of our financial statements for prior periods. Any such failures could have a material adverse effect on our financial results and investor confidence and the market for our common stock. For a discussion of our internal controls over financial reporting and a description of management's plan for remediation of the material weaknesses, see “Part II, Item 9A Controls and Procedures” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Completion of the remediation plan does not provide assurance that our remediation or other controls will continue to operate properly.

Our internal control over financial reporting may not be effective and our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to certify as to their effectiveness, which could have a significant and adverse effect on our business and reputation.

As a public company, we are required to comply with the SEC’s rules implementing Sections 302 and 404 of SOX, which require management to certify financial and other information in our quarterly and annual reports and provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting. To comply with the requirements of being a public company, the Company may be required to provide the management report on internal controls commencing with the annual report for fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, and we may need to undertake various actions, such as implementing additional internal controls and procedures and hiring additional accounting or internal audit staff. The standards required for a public company under Section 404 of SOX are significantly more stringent than those required as a privately held company. Further, as an emerging growth company, our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of SOX until the date we are no longer an emerging growth company. Our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event that it is not satisfied with the level at which the controls of the Company are documented, designed or operating.

Testing and maintaining these controls can divert our management’s attention from other matters that are important to the operation of our business. If we identify material weaknesses in the internal control over financial reporting of the Company or are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of SOX or assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting when we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock could be negatively affected and we could become subject to investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.

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The restatement of our prior quarterly financial statements may affect investor confidence and raise reputational issues and may subject us to additional risks and uncertainties, including increased professional costs and the increased possibility of legal proceedings and regulatory inquiries.

As discussed in the Explanatory Note preceding Part I, Item I above and in Note 18 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we determined to restate our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements as of and for the periods ended June 30, 2022 and September 30, 2022 after we identified errors in the accounting for the indemnification asset, various intangible assets, and rights to cash flows and consolidation of an entity in connection with the our business combination. As a result of this error and the resulting restatement of our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for the impacted periods, we have incurred, and may continue to incur, unanticipated costs for accounting and legal fees in connection with or related to the restatement and have become subject to a number of additional risks and uncertainties, including the increased possibility of litigation and regulatory inquiries. Any of the foregoing may affect investor confidence in the accuracy of our financial disclosures and may raise reputational risks for our business, both of which could harm our business and financial results.

Matters relating to or arising from the special committee of the Board of Directors’ investigation, including governmental investigations, regulatory proceedings, litigation matters, and potential additional expenses, may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

On April 16, 2023, a special committee of the Board of Directors was formed to review matters related to the preparation and filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. On June 13, 2023, the special committee finalized its review. The findings and recommendations of the special committee are set forth in “Part II, Item 9A Controls and Procedures” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We have incurred significant expenses related to legal, accounting, and other professional services in connection with the special committee review and related matters. The expenses incurred, and expected to be incurred, have adversely affected, and could continue to adversely affect, our business, financial condition, and results of operations or cash flows.

In addition, the resulting impact of our delayed filing of periodic reports on the confidence of investors, employees, and customers, and the diversion of the attention of the management team that has occurred, and is expected to continue, has adversely affected, and could continue to adversely affect, our business, financial condition and results of operations or cash flows.

As a result of the matters reported above, we are exposed to greater risks associated with litigation, regulatory proceedings and government enforcement actions. Any future investigations or additional lawsuits may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

The Company’s stockholders may be held liable for claims by third parties against the Company to the extent of distributions received by them.

If the Company is forced to file a bankruptcy case or an involuntary bankruptcy case is filed against the Company which is not dismissed, any distributions received by stockholders could be viewed under applicable debtor/creditor and/or bankruptcy laws as either a “preferential transfer” or a “fraudulent conveyance.” As a result, a bankruptcy court could seek to recover all amounts received by the Company’s stockholders. Furthermore, because the Company distributed the proceeds held in the Public Shares to the Company’s Public Stockholders in connection with the Closing, this may be viewed or interpreted as giving preference to the Company’s Public Stockholders over any potential creditors with respect to access to or distributions from the Company’s assets. Furthermore, the LCAP Board may be viewed as having breached their fiduciary duties to the Company’s creditors and/or may have acted in bad faith, and thereby exposing itself and the Company to claims of punitive damages, by paying Public Stockholders from the Trust Account prior to addressing the claims of creditors. The Company cannot assure you that claims will not be brought against it for these reasons.

Risks Related to the Yorkville Purchase Agreement

In this section “we,” “us,” “our,” and other similar terms refer to MSP Recovery, Inc. d/b/a LifeWallet and its subsidiaries prior to the Business Combination and to the Company following the Business Combination.

On January 6, 2023, we entered into the Yorkville Purchase Agreement with YA II PN, Ltd., a Cayman Island exempted company (“Yorkville”), pursuant to which Yorkville committed to purchase up to $1 billion in shares of Common Stock, subject to certain limitations and conditions set forth in the Yorkville Purchase Agreement. Our shares of Common Stock that may be issued under the Yorkville Purchase Agreement may be sold by us to Yorkville at our discretion from time to time over the 36-month period commencing on the date the registration statement became effective. No registration statement for the Yorkville Purchase Agreement is currently effective and no sales may be made under the Purchase Agreement until it becomes effective.

We generally have the right to control the timing and amount of any sales of our shares of Common Stock to Yorkville under the Yorkville Purchase Agreement. Sales of our shares of Common Stock, if any, to Yorkville under the Yorkville Purchase Agreement will depend upon market conditions and other factors to be determined by us. We may ultimately decide to sell to Yorkville all, some or none of the shares of Common Stock that may be available for us to sell to Yorkville pursuant to the Yorkville Purchase Agreement.

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Because the purchase price per share to be paid by Yorkville for the shares of Common Stock that we may elect to sell to Yorkville under the Yorkville Purchase Agreement, if any, will fluctuate based on the market prices of our shares of Common Stock at the time we elect to sell shares to Yorkville pursuant to the Yorkville Purchase Agreement, if any, it is not possible for us to predict, as of the date of this Form 10-K and prior to any such sales, the number of shares of Common Stock that we will sell to Yorkville under the Yorkville Purchase Agreement, the purchase price per share that Yorkville will pay for shares purchased from us under the Yorkville Purchase Agreement, or the aggregate gross proceeds that we will receive from those purchases by Yorkville under the Yorkville Purchase Agreement.

Although the Yorkville Purchase Agreement provides that, during the term of the agreement and subject to issuance and effective registration of the shares, we may, in our discretion, from time to time direct Yorkville to purchase our shares of Common Stock from us in one or more purchases under the agreement, for a maximum aggregate purchase price of up to $1,000,000,000, the Yorkville Purchase Agreement is subject to a cap of 650,000,000 shares of Common Stock. Assuming all of the 120,000,000 shares remaining to be sold to Yorkville were sold, per the terms of the Yorkville Purchase Agreement, at a 2.0% discount to the last closing sale price of our shares of Common Stock as reported on NASDAQ on December 30, 2022, or $1.60 per share (inclusive of such discount), we would not receive aggregate gross proceeds from the sale of such shares to Yorkville equal to Yorkville’s $1,000,000,000 total aggregate purchase commitment under the Yorkville Purchase Agreement. However, because the market prices of our shares of Common Stock may fluctuate from time to time and, as a result, the actual purchase prices to be paid by Yorkville for our shares of Common Stock that we direct it to purchase under the Yorkville Purchase Agreement, if any, also may fluctuate because they will be based on such fluctuating market prices of our shares of Common Stock, it is possible that we would need to issue and sell more than 650,000,000 shares of Common Stock to Yorkville under the Yorkville Purchase Agreement in order to receive aggregate gross proceeds equal to Yorkville’s $1,000,000,000 total aggregate purchase commitment under the Yorkville Purchase Agreement.

The number of our shares of Common Stock ultimately offered for sale by Yorkville is dependent upon the number of shares of Common Stock, if any, we ultimately elect to sell to Yorkville under the Yorkville Purchase Agreement.

Investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

Pursuant to the Yorkville Purchase Agreement, we will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold to Yorkville. If and when we do elect to sell our shares of Common Stock to Yorkville pursuant to the Yorkville Purchase Agreement, after Yorkville has acquired such shares, Yorkville may resell all, some or none of such shares at any time or from time to time in its discretion and at different prices. As a result, investors who purchase shares from Yorkville at different times will likely pay different prices for those shares, and so may experience different levels of dilution and in some cases substantial dilution and different outcomes in their investment results. Investors may experience a decline in the value of the shares they purchase from Yorkville as a result of future sales made by us to Yorkville at prices lower than the prices such investors paid for their shares. In addition, if we sell a substantial number of shares to Yorkville under the Yorkville Purchase Agreement, or if investors expect that we will do so, the actual sales of shares or the mere existence of our arrangement with Yorkville may make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and at a price that we might otherwise wish to affect such sales.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

Not applicable.

Item 2. Properties.

We lease our corporate headquarters and maintain our executive offices in an office building in Miami, Florida, which is located at 2701 S. Le Jeune Road, 10th Floor, Coral Gables, FL 33134. We also lease office space in Puerto Rico. We believe that our existing facilities are adequate for our current and planned levels of operation.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings.

From time to time, we may become involved in legal proceedings or be subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not currently party to any material legal proceedings. Regardless of outcome, such proceedings or claims can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of resources and other factors and there can be no assurances that favorable outcomes will be obtained.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Market for our Common Stock and Warrants

Our common stock and warrants are traded on The Nasdaq Stock Market under the symbols “LIFW”, “LIFWW” and “LIFWZ,” respectively.

Record Holders

As of June 30, 2023, there were approximately 42 stockholders of record of our common stock, 8 stockholders of record of our redeemable warrants, each whole warrant exercisable for one share of Class A common stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share and 1 stockholder of record of our redeemable warrants, each whole warrant exercisable for one share of Class A common stock at an exercise price of $0.0001 per share. The actual number of stockholders may be greater than this number of record stockholders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees. This number of stockholders of record also does not include stockholders whose shares may be held in trust by other entities.

Dividend Policy

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. We currently anticipate that we will retain all of our future earnings for use in the operation of our business and to fund future growth and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare cash dividends will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors, subject to applicable law, and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

None.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

None.

Item 6. [Reserved]

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

 

MSP RECOVERY INC.’S d/b/a LIFEWALLET'S MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis provides information that LifeWallet’s management believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of LifeWallet’s consolidated results of operations and financial condition. The discussion should be read together with “Selected Historical Combined and Consolidated Financial and Operating Data of MSP” and the historical audited annual combined and consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 included in the S-1 Registration Statement filed on January 20, 2023 with the SEC, and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Form 10-K”). Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this subsection to “We,” “the Company” or “MSP” refers to the business of the MSP Companies prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, which will be the business of the Company and its subsidiaries following the consummation of the Business Combination. This discussion may contain forward-looking statements based upon LifeWallet’s current expectations, estimates and projections that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements due to, among other considerations, the matters discussed under “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Our Business

We are a leading healthcare recoveries and data analytics company. Our business model includes two principal lines of business, Claims Recovery and LifeWallet. We focus on the Medicare, Medicaid and commercial insurance spaces. We are disrupting the antiquated healthcare reimbursement system, using data and analytics to identify and recover improper payments made by Medicare, Medicaid, and Commercial Health Insurers.

Medicare and Medicaid are payers of last resort. Too often, they end up being the first and only payers, because the responsible payer is not identified or billed. Because Medicare and Medicaid pay a far lower rate than what other insurers are often billed, this costs the healthcare system (and the supporting taxpayers) tens of billions of dollars a year in improper billing and lost recoveries. By discovering, quantifying and settling the billed-to-paid gap on a large-scale basis, MSP is positioned to generate meaningful annual recovery revenue at high profit margins.

Our access to large volumes of data, sophisticated data analytics and a leading technology platform provide a unique opportunity to discover and recover Claims. We have developed Algorithms to identify waste, fraud and abuse in the Medicare, Medicaid, and Commercial Health Insurance segments. Our deep team of data scientists and medical professionals analyze historical medical Claims data to identify recoverable opportunities. Once these potential recoveries are reviewed by our team, they are aggregated and pursued. Through federal statutory law and a series of legal cases and precedents, we believe we have an established basis for future recoveries.

We differ from our competitors because we receive our recovery rights through irrevocable assignments of Claims. When we are assigned these rights, we take on a risk that our competitors do not. Rather than provide services under a third-party vendor services contract, we receive the rights to certain recovery proceeds from our Assignors’ Claims (and, in many cases, actually take assignment of the Claims themselves, which allow us to step into the Assignors' shoes). In the instances where we take Claims by assignment, we have total control over the direction of the litigation. We, or our affiliated entities, are the plaintiff in any action filed and have total control over the direction of the lawsuit. By receiving Claims through assignment, we can pursue additional recoveries under numerous legal theories that our competitors cannot. In the cases where we take Claims by assignment, we typically agree that 50% of the recoveries generated by those Claims is paid to the applicable Assignor. In the cases where we do not take Claims by assignment, we typically would still be entitled to receive 50% of the recoveries generated by those Claims, subject to certain expenses. Although we typically own assigned Claims, for a significant portion of assigned Claims our ability to pursue recoveries depends on our ongoing access to data through data access rights granted to us. In these cases, termination of such health care data access would substantially impair our ability to generate recoveries on those Claims.

Our current Claims portfolio has scaled significantly. We are entitled to a portion of any recovery rights associated with approximately $1,574 billion in Billed Amount (and approximately $375 billion in Paid Amount), which contains approximately $89.6 billion in Paid Value of Potentially Recoverable Claims, as of December 31, 2022. We are typically entitled to 50% of recovery rights pursuant to our CCRAs but in certain cases we have also purchased from our Assignors, from time to time, rights to 100% of the recovery. We believe it would take any competitor a long time to amass the portfolio of Claims rights currently owned by us due to, among things, the volume of our Claims data retained and strength of our data analytics, which we believe are key to attracting counterparties willing to assign Claims to us.

Our Business Model

Recovery Model

In our current business model, we receive irrevocable assignments of health Claims recovery rights through Claims Cost Recovery Agreements (“CCRA”) from a variety of sources including, but not limited to, MAOs, MSOs, HMOs, Hospitals, and other at risk

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entities. Prior to executing a CCRA, we utilize our proprietary internal data analytics platform to review the set of Claims and identify Claims with probable recovery paths.

Once Claims have been assigned, our data analysts run proprietary Algorithms to identify potential recoveries. Results are then quality checked by our internal Medical Team. We contract with the Law Firm and various other law firms across the country to pursue our recoveries through the legal system. Where appropriate, Law Firm reaches out to the liable parties to demand payment of amounts that are owed. Prior to litigation, there may be an incentive for the primary insurer to settle. If legal action is required for recovery from primary insurers, claimholders are entitled to pursue “double damages” under the Medicare Secondary Payer Act.

We engage with each Assignor independently. Typically, our Assignors irrevocably assign to us broad recovery rights to the Claims assigned. Generally, the assignment agreements provide for the Assignor to receive 50% of the Net Proceeds of any recoveries from the Claims assigned. The “Net Proceeds” of any assigned Claim is defined as the gross amount recovered on an assigned Claim, minus any costs directly traceable to such assigned Claim(s) for which recovery was made. In some instances, we may purchase outright an Assignor’s recovery rights; in this instance, we are entitled to the entire recovery. In some cases, we have entered into arrangements to transfer CCRAs or rights to proceeds from CCRAs to other parties. Such sales include variable consideration in the form of payments that will be made only upon achievement of certain recoveries or based on a percentage of actual recoveries.

We have yet to generate substantial revenue from the Recovery Model. To date, the majority of our revenue has been generated by Claims recovery services which are either performance-based or fee for service arrangements as described below.

Chase to Pay

Over time, we plan to pivot the business to the “Chase to Pay” model. Chase to Pay is a real-time analytics driven platform that identifies the proper primary insurer at the point of care. Chase to Pay is intended to plug into the real-time medical utilization platforms used by providers at the points of care. Rather than allow an MAO to make a wrongful payment whereby we need to chase down the primary payer and collect a reimbursement for the MAO, Chase to Pay is intended to prevent the MAO from making a wrongful payment and ensures that the correct payer pays in the first instance. Furthermore, the primary payer typically will make payments at a higher multiple than the MAO would have paid, and MSP will be entitled to receive its portion of the recovery proceeds on the amounts paid by the primary payer.

As Chase to Pay works at the point of care, it is expected to decrease legal costs of recovery. As a result, Chase to Pay would improve the net recovery margin as the recovery multiple grows and variable legal costs to recover decline.

We have yet to generate revenue from this model, nor have we executed any agreements with customers to date. We are currently in the process of determining the pricing and form of these arrangements. As part of our “Chase to Pay” model, we launched LifeWallet in January 2022, a platform powered by our sophisticated data analytics, designed to locate and organize users’ medical records, facilitating efficient access to enable informed decision-making and improved patient care.

Claims Recovery Services

We also recognize Claims recovery service revenue from our services to customers to assist those entities with the pursuit of Claims recovery rights. We provide services to other parties in identifying recoverable Claims as well as provide data matching and legal services. Under our Claims recovery services model, we do not own the rights to Claims but provide our services for a fee based on budgeted expenses for the month with an adjustment for the variance between budget and actual expense from the prior month.

We were a party to that certain Recovery Services Agreement (the “MSP RH Series 01 Recovery Services Agreement”), dated as of October 23, 2020, by and between MSP Recovery Holdings Series 01, LLC (“MSP RH Series 01”) and MSP Recovery, LLC, pursuant to which MSP Recovery will provide services including identifying, processing, prosecuting, and recovering money for certain Claims of MSP RH Series 01. In return for these services, MSP RH Series 01 paid a one-time fee of approximately $7.2 million and has agreed to pay annual service fees of approximately $3.0 million commencing January 1, 2021, subject to adjustment based on the aggregate value of Claims of MSP RH Series 01 that is subject to the MSP RH Series 01 Recovery Services Agreement. Subsequent to December 31, 2022, this service fee agreement was terminated in connection with the loan facility executed with Hazel Partners Holdings LLC. See Note 19 to the financial statements, Subsequent Events for details.

The fees received pursuant to this agreement are related to expenses incurred and are not tied to the Billed Amount or potential recovery amounts. Although we believe our future business to be highly tied to the Recovery Model and Chase to Pay, we will continue to enter into these contracts as the market dictates.

Recent Updates

Hazel Transactions

On March 29, 2023, the Company entered into a membership interest purchase agreement with Hazel, whereby in exchange for a purchase price of $390 million, the Company acquired from Hazel membership interests in entities that own certain Claims recovery and reimbursement rights (the "Claims Purchase"). The purchase price for the Claims Purchase was funded by (i) the proceeds from the Claims Sale (as defined below), and (ii) a purchase money loan between Hazel, as lender, and the Company, as borrower, in the amount of $250 million (the "Purchase Money Loan").

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In a separate transaction on March 29, 2023, the Company entered into a membership interest purchase agreement with Hazel, whereby in exchange for a purchase price of $150 million, Hazel acquired from the Company the membership interests in entities that own certain other Claims recovery and reimbursement rights, provided that the Company and Hazel will share in the recovery proceeds therefrom in accordance with an agreed waterfall (the "Claims Sale," and together with the Claims Purchase, the "Claims Transactions").

In addition, on March 29, 2023, the Company entered into an Amended and Restated Credit Agreement with affiliates of Hazel, as the lender and administrative agent with respect to an aggregate $80 million term loan credit facility consisting of a Term Loan A commitment to fund up to $30 million (in multiple installments) in proceeds and a Term Loan B commitment to fund up to $18 million (in multiple installments) in proceeds, in each case, after taking into account an original issue discount (collectively, the "Working Capital Credit Facility"). As previously reported, an initial $10 million in proceeds was drawn under the Term Loan A on March 6, 2023. At closing, on March 29, 2023, an additional $5 million was disbursed to the Company under the Term Loan A. On May 11, 2023 and June 13, 2023, Hazel notified us that it would not disburse additional funds under the Working Capital Credit Facility until the Company satisfies certain funding conditions, including the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The parties subsequently agreed that $5.5 million will be funded under Term Loan A in accordance with the terms of the Working Capital Credit Facility subsequent to the filing of this 2022 Form 10-K and receipt of funding notices, deeming funding conditions satisfied or waived. Following such funding, the Term Loan A commitment would be terminated, with total funding of $20.5 million. In addition, the parties agreed to increase the Term Loan B commitment from $18 million to $27.5 million, which will be funded in multiple installments and in accordance with the terms of the Working Capital Credit Facility.

Loans under the Working Capital Credit Facility accrue interest at a Term Secured Overnight Financing Rate for 12-month interest period, plus an applicable margin of 10% per annum. Accrued interest on the Working Capital Credit Facility is payable in kind and will be capitalized. The Working Capital Credit Facility has a stated maturity date of March 31, 2026, and Hazel may extend for up to one year in its sole discretion. The Purchase Money Loan accrues interest at a rate of 20% per annum, payable in kind or in cash at the Company's discretion. The Purchase Money Loan has a maturity date of March 31, 2026, extendable up to one year in Hazel's sole discretion.

The Company is permitted to prepay the loans under the Working Capital Credit Facility from time to time without prepayment premium. Prepayment of the Purchase Money Loan will be permitted after the prepayment or repayment of loans under the Working Capital Loans, and such prepayment of the Purchase Money Loan may be subject to prepayment penalty, as applicable.

The Purchase Money Loan and the Working Capital Credit Facility contains certain representations, warranties and covenants of the Company and its subsidiaries, including restrictions on debt incurrence, liens, investments, affiliate transactions, distributions and dividends, fundamental changes, certain debt prepayments and Claim settlement.

Amounts borrowed and obligations under the Purchase Money Loan and the Working Capital Credit Facility are secured by a pledge of proceeds from certain Claims in the Company's Claims portfolio, with the lien securing the Purchase Money Loan being subordinated and junior to the lien securing the Working Capital Credit Facility. Pursuant to the Purchase Money Loan and the Working Capital Credit Facility, the Company entered into a collateral administrative agreement between the Company and Hazel, which sets forth certain arrangements between the Company and Hazel in relation to the management of the litigation of certain Claims owned by the Company, the proceeds of which were pledged to Hazel to secure the Purchase Money Loan and the Working Capital Credit Facility.

Virage Amendment

On April 12, 2023, we entered into an amendment (the "Virage MTA Amendment") to the Virage MTA and the Guaranty Agreement made as of March 9, 2022 (as amended, the "Virage Guaranty") pursuant to which the payment date was extended from May 23, 2023 until September 30, 2024, subject to acceleration upon certain triggering events. Under the Virage MTA Amendment, Virage will receive a first priority lien on all sources of revenue of the Company not otherwise encumbered as of the date of the Virage MTA Amendment, to the extent in excess of the amount of revenues necessary to establish and maintain an operating reserve of $70 million for overhead expenses and applicable taxes. In addition, pursuant to the Master Transaction Agreement, dated March 9, 2022 (as amended, the "Virage MTA"), we have payment obligations to Virage in the amount of $825.0 million as of March 31, 2023.

On January 1, 2024, if the Virage Guaranty is not paid, the Company will be required to make a one-time, lump sum payment to Virage for the period starting May 24, 2023 and ending December 31, 2023, in one or a combination of: (a) cash, in an amount equal to 1.0% of each calendar month-end balance (which month-end balance shall be increased daily up to 20% per annum based on a formula set forth in the Virage MTA Amendment) of the amount owing to Virage as of each preceding calendar month end and/or (b) warrants to purchase Class A common stock at $0.0001 per share, in an amount equal to the quotient of 1.0% of each calendar month-end balance (which shall be increased daily up to 20% per annum based on a formula set forth in the Virage MTA Amendment) of the amount owing to Virage as of each preceding calendar month end and the volume weighted average price of a share of our Class A common stock for the five day period prior to the issuance. If paid in warrants, such warrants will expire on January 1, 2026.

Further, for each calendar month beginning with January 31, 2024 until the obligations to Virage are paid in full, the Company has agreed to pay to Virage an amount monthly, in one or a combination of: (a) cash, in an amount equal to 1.0% of each calendar month-end balance (which month-end balance shall be increased daily up to 20% per annum based on a formula set forth in the Virage MTA Amendment) of the amount owing to Virage as of each preceding calendar month end and/or (b) warrants to purchase Class A common

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stock at $0.0001 per share, in an amount equal to the quotient of 1.0% of each calendar month-end balance (which month-end balance shall be increased daily up to 20% per annum based on a formula set forth in the Virage MTA Amendment) of the amount owing to Virage as of each preceding calendar month end and the volume weighted average price of a share of our Class A common stock. If paid in warrants, such warrants will expire two years from the date of issuance.

The warrants will contain customary provisions for a transaction of this type, including that each warrant will be exercisable in whole or in part at any time prior to the expiration date, be freely transferable, subject only to applicable securities laws, and be subject to customary anti-dilution protection regarding the exercise price and number of shares of Class A Common Stock to be issued upon the exercise of each warrant.

Nomura Promissory Note

On April 12, 2023, the Company amended the promissory note to Nomura originally issued on May 27, 2022, which amendment increased the principal amount to approximately $26.2 million and extended the maturity date of the promissory note to September 30, 2024. The amended note carries an interest rate of 16% per annum and is payable in kind or in cash, at the Company's discretion, every 30 calendar days after April 12, 2023. Upon two days prior written notice to Nomura, the Company may prepay all or any portion of the then outstanding principal amount under the promissory note together with all accrued and unpaid interest thereon.

Key Factors Affecting Our Results

Our Claims Portfolio

We differ from some of our competitors because we receive our recovery rights through irrevocable assignments. When we are assigned these rights, we take on the risk that such Claims may not be recoverable. We are entitled to pursue a portion of any recovery rights associated with approximately $1,574 billion in Billed Amount (and approximately $375 billion in Paid Amount), which contained approximately $89.6 billion in Paid Value of Potentially Recoverable Claims, as of December 31, 2022. We are typically entitled to 100% of recovery rights pursuant to our CCRAs, but contractually obligated to pay 50% of gross recoveries to the Assignor. In certain cases, we have purchased from our Assignors the rights to 100% of the recovery. By discovering, quantifying, and settling the gap between Billed Amount and Paid Amount on a large scale, we believe we are positioned to generate substantial annual recovery revenue at high profit margins for our assigned Claims. In litigation, we have a competitive advantage by our experienced management and legal teams. While our model of being assigned the Claim rights allows us the flexibility to direct the litigation and potentially generate higher margins, we have, on an opportunistic basis, paid the Assignor an upfront purchase price for these rights.

To date, we have not generated substantial revenue from our Claims portfolio, and our business model is dependent of achieving revenue from this model in the future. If we are unable to recover the upfront purchase price from the assigned Claims or the investments we have made in pursuing recoveries, it would have an adverse effect on our profitability and business.

Our potential Claims recovery revenue in a given period will be impacted by the amount of Claims we review and ultimately pursue. The number of Claims that we review is driven by the Claims we receive through assignment. As we are assigned more Claims, we can review the Claims and identify additional recoveries. To expand our Assignor base and obtain more Claims, we plan to implement new strategies to secure new Assignors. These strategies will include a platform to educate potential Assignors about our company, making strategic business partnerships, potential mergers, acquisitions of personnel, as well as other marketing strategies. Our Assignors have grown from 32 in 2015, to 105 in 2018, to 123 in 2019, to 134 in 2020 and over 160 Assignors to date. If we are unable to continue to attract new Assignors to our platform, this could adversely affect future profitability.

In addition to obtaining new Claims, our ability to collect on identified Claims on our estimated multiples is key to our future profitability. Per the Medicare Secondary Payer Act, we are entitled to pursue reasonable and customary rates. Under existing statutory and case law, the private cause of action under the Medicare Secondary Payer Act permits an award of double damages when a primary plan fails to provide for primary payment or appropriate reimbursement. In addition to double damages, MSP may pursue statutory interest from primary payers on any amounts owed. Federal law also provides express authority to assess interest on Medicare Secondary Payer debts.

As a result, we may pursue double damages and statutory interest in our Medicare Secondary Payer Act-related recoveries. We can recover these amounts under either the Recovery Model or the Chase to Pay Model. Federal law also expressly provides MAOs with the right to charge providers for the Billed Amount when auto insurer liability exists. Per the terms of various legal services agreements that MSP has with the Law Firm, for legal services provided, the Law Firm would receive a percentage of the total Claim recovery which would include double damages and additional penalties. Our ability to pursue double damages may be impacted by the RAMP Act as disclosed in Note 13, Commitments and Contingencies.

Our Claims recovery revenue is typically recognized upon reaching a binding settlement or arbitration with the counterparty or when the legal proceedings, including any appellate process, are resolved. A decrease in the willingness of courts to grant these judgments, a change in the requirements for filing these cases or obtaining these judgments, or a decrease in our ability to collect on these judgments could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. Of the Claims identified as potentially recoverable, relating to our accident-related cases as of December 31, 2022, approximately 86% are already in the recovery process; either the recovery process has been initiated, data has been collected and matched, or resolution discussions are in process.

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Key Performance Indicators

To evaluate our business, key trends, risks and opportunities, prepare projections, make strategic decisions and measure our performance, we track several key performance indicators (“KPIs”). As our company has yet to achieve significant revenues and the drivers of expected revenues require significant lead time before revenue can be generated, MSP’s management utilizes KPIs to assist in tracking progress and believes such KPIs are useful in evaluating the performance of our business, in addition to our financial results prepared in accordance with GAAP. The KPIs are Total Paid Amount, Paid Value of Potentially Recoverable Claims, Billed Value of Potentially Recoverable Claims, Recovery Multiple and Penetration Status of Portfolio.

Total Paid Amount: Total Paid Amount represents the total within the Claims portfolio of the amount actually paid to the provider from the health plan, including incorporation of capitated amounts. As we continue to expand, we anticipate our revenue growth will be greatly dependent on our ability to increase the Total Paid Amount and, correspondingly, the Paid Value of Potentially Recoverable Claims, in our portfolio. Management believes this metric is a useful measure to investors and is useful in managing or monitoring company performance because we view an increase in Paid Amount as a positive indicator as it should provide the Company with the ability to increase the Paid Value of Potentially Recoverable Claims. Conversely, a decrease would produce a diminishing expectation of the Paid Value of Potentially Recoverable Claims.

Paid Value of Potentially Recoverable Claims: The Paid Value of Potentially Recoverable Claims (“PVPRC”) represents the cumulative Paid Amount of potentially recoverable Claims. We analyze our Claims portfolio and identify potentially recoverable Claims using our Algorithms to comb through historical paid Claims data and search for potential recoveries. The PVPRC is a measure of the actual Paid Amount that has been paid to providers in respect of those potentially recoverable Claims. Management believes this measure provides a useful baseline for potential recoveries, but it is not a measure of the total amount that may be recovered in respect of potentially recoverable Claims, which in turn may be influenced by any applicable potential statutory recoveries such as double damages or fines, as described below. We believe our ability to generate future Claims recovery income is largely dependent on our ability to accurately identify potentially recoverable Claims through our data analytics and ultimately recover on these Claims. Management believes this metric is a useful measure to investors and in managing or monitoring company performance because we view an increase in PVPRC as a positive indicator as it should provide the Company with the ability to increase Claims recovery income and otherwise shows growth.

Billed Value of Potentially Recoverable Claims: Billed Value of Potentially Recoverable Claims (“BVPRC”) represents the cumulative Billed Amount of potentially recoverable Claims. We analyze our Claims portfolio and identify potentially recoverable Claims using our Algorithms to comb through historical paid Claims data and search for potential recoveries. For a majority of our Claims, the Company believes it has the ability to recover in excess of the Paid Amount by collecting the Billed Amount plus interest plus double damages under applicable law. Under existing statutory and case law, the private cause of action under the Medicare Secondary Payer Act permits an award of double damages when a primary plan fails to provide for primary payment or appropriate reimbursement. Federal law expressly provides MAOs with the right to charge, or authorize the provider of such services to charge, in accordance with the charges allowed under a law, plan, or primary plan policy. We believe our ability to generate future Claim recovery income is largely dependent on our ability to accurately identify potentially recoverable Claims through our data analytics and ultimately recover on these Claims. Management believes this metric is a useful measure to investors and in managing or monitoring company performance because we view an increase in BVPRC as a positive indicator as it should provide the Company with the ability to increase Claims recovery income and otherwise shows growth.

Recovery Multiple: The Recovery Multiple is the amount of income of any generated Claims recovery income obtained by the Company in respect of any Claims as compared to the Paid Amount of those Claims (e.g., on a $600 recovery, if the paid amount for said Claim was $100, the Recovery Multiple is 6x). For these purposes, we record values under the Recovery Multiple only once we have recorded Claims recovery income either through the receipt of cash or recognition of accounts receivable on the Claims. Management believes this metric is useful to investors and is useful in managing or monitoring company performance because the Recovery Multiple provides a measure of the Company’s ability to recover on its Claims recovery rights. A Recovery Multiple above 1x would illustrate the Company’s ability to collect in excess of the Paid Amount. To date, because actual recoveries have been limited, this measure has had limited utility in historical periods. However, management believes this measure will become more meaningful during the next 12 months and beyond to the extent the Company begins to report actual increases in recoveries during those periods. As of December 31, 2022, the Company has obtained settlements with two counterparties where the Recovery Multiple was or would be in excess of the Paid Amount. However, these settlements do not provide a large enough sample to be statistically significant, and are therefore not shown in the table. As the Recovery Multiple is based on actual recoveries, this measure is not based on the Penetration Status of Portfolio, as described below.

Penetration Status of Portfolio: Penetration Status of Portfolio provides a measure of the Company’s recovery efforts by taking into account the current stages of recovery of Claims in the portfolio and tying it in with the estimated market share of the related primary payers. The total percentage represents the estimated aggregate market share for the respective primary payers in which the Company is in some stage of recovery. As the Company initiates additional recovery efforts against additional primary payers, the Company expects this number to increase. These stages of recovery include where (1) the recovery process has been initiated, (2) data has been collected and matched, or (3) potential resolution discussions are in process. The Company uses third-party sources to estimate the aggregate market share of those primary payers in the property and casualty auto insurance market with whom the Company is engaged

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in one of these stages of recovery. Management believes this metric is useful to investors and in managing or monitoring company performance because it provides insight as to the estimated share of the market that is covered by existing recovery efforts. We estimate that cases that are in the potential resolution discussions and/or data matching are closer to generating potential future Claims recovery income.

 

As of and for the,

 

 

Year Ended
December 31, 2022

 

Nine Months Ended
September 30, 2022

 

Six Months Ended
June 30, 2022

 

Three Months Ended
March 31, 2022

 

Year Ended
December 31, 2021

 

Year Ended
December 31, 2020

 

$ in billions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paid Amount

$

374.8

 

$

373.3

 

$

370.2

 

$

366.9

 

$

364.4

 

$

58.4

 

Paid Value of Potentially Recoverable Claims

 

89.6

 

 

89.2

 

 

88.3

 

 

87.3

 

 

86.6

 

 

14.7

 

Billed Value of Potentially Recoverable Claims

 

377.8

 

 

376.1

 

 

371.3

 

 

367.8

 

 

363.2

 

 

52.3

 

Recovery Multiple

N/A(1)

 

N/A(1)

 

N/A(1)

 

N/A(1)

 

N/A(1)

 

N/A(1)

 

Penetration Status of Portfolio

 

85.8

%

 

85.8

%

 

76.3

%

 

76.3

%

 

75.6

%

N/A

 

(1)
During the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company has received total recoveries of $4.9 million with a recovery multiple of 3.8x. However, the settlement amounts do not provide a large enough sample to be statistically significant, and are therefore not shown in the table.
(2)
On August 10, 2022, the United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit held that four-year statute of limitations period for civil actions arising under an Act of Congress enacted after December 1, 1990 applies to certain claims brought under the Medicare Secondary Payer private cause of action, and that the limitations